Performance of kangkong and sweet gourd in association with four years old lohakat tree (Xylia dolabriformis)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at the Banglabazar field area near Pabna town during the period from
05 February 2016 to 25 May 2016 to observe the performance (growth and yield) of kangkong and sweet
gourd grown at different distances from the lohakat tree (Xylia sp.). Different treatments of the experiment
were T1 (3 feet distance from tree), T2 (6 feet distance from tree) and T3 (9 feet distance from tree) T4 (open
field referred as control). The experiment was laid out in RCBD for all six crops with 3 replications. In case
of sweet gourd, it was found that open field produced highest yields (40.30 t ha -1) which were statistically
similar to treatment T3. In case of kangkong, it was also found that treatment T3 (9 feet distance from tree)
produced highest yields (39.20 t ha -1
) which were statistically similar to treatment T4 (open field referred as
control). In case of sweet gourd and kangkong, the lowest yield was found in T1(3 feet distance from the
tree). The growth characters of lohakat tree (Xylia dolabriformis) tree are not satisfactory in association with
kangkong and sweet gourd at 9 feet distance from lohakat tree (Xylia dolabriformis) tree.
Key words: Performance, kangkong, vegetables, agroforestry.
Introduction
In Bangladesh, a large number of vegetable are grown throughout the year including summer season. About
30 per cent of vegetable are produced in summer and rainy seasons. The average consumption of vegetable
in Bangladesh is only 70 g per head per day including potato and sweet potato. To supply the minimum
daily requirement of 200g vegetable head day-1, national production of vegetable should be over 10 million
ton in addition. The effective area of forest in Bangladesh is neither in a position to fulfill the requirements
of the people’s fuel and timber nor to stabilize the climatic condition. So, conflict for land use between
agriculture and forestry are prevalent in Bangladesh. Under these circumstances it is necessary to find out a
suitable alternative to overcome this situation. Recently, some techniques have already been advocated to
overcome future food challenges, vegetable agroforestry is one of them. The integration of tree and crop or
vegetable on the same area of land is a promising production system for maximizing yield and maintaining
friendly environment (Nair, 1990). In Bangladesh; different crops are cultivated in summer season. Among
the different summer vegetables okra and bottle gourd are the important summer vegetables in Bangladesh.
These are well known and very popular vegetables grown successfully during summer season in
Bangladesh. For identifying the compatible tree-crop combination, particularly under storey species i.e.
different crops should be screened out in terms of their adaptability and yield in association with the early
stage of tree. Therefore, it would be wise to conduct experiments under different tree crop or vegetable
combination at different spacing for screening of different crops in terms of their growth and yield
performance. The specific objectives of the study were to observe the performance of kangkong and sweet
gourd in association with lohakat tree tree and to observe their interaction.
Materials and Methods
The study was made to evaluate the performance of vegetables in association with four years old lohakat
tree. The soil of the experimental area was a medium high land. The texture of the soil was silty loam
having pH 6.7 (Amir and Bhuiya, 1994). The topography of the field was medium high land above flood.

Effect of integrated nutrient management on the performance of boro rice

ABSTRACT 

The experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh during the period from January to June 2016 with a view to finding out the effect of integrated nutrient management on the performance of boro rice. The experiment comprised of two varieties namely BRRI dhan28, BRRI dhan29 and seven integrated nutrient management practices viz. BRRI recommended dose, 75% of BRRI recommended dose + 25% N from cowdung, 50% of BRRI recommended dose + 50% N from cowdung, 25% of BRRI recommended dose + 75% N from cowdung, 75% of BRRI recommended dose + 25% N from poultry manure, 50% of BRRI recommended dose + 50% N from poultry manure, 25% of BRRI recommended dose + 75% N from poultry manure. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with three replications. Variety exerted significant influence on yield and plant characters of boro rice. BRRI dhan29 produced the higher plant height (88.28cm), panicle length (22.47cm), number of grains panicle-1 (120.54), grain yield (5.44 t ha-1), straw yield (5.92 t ha-1) and harvest index (47.80%) while BRRI dhan28 had the higher number of total tillers hill-1 (13.39) and weight of 1000-grain (25.00gm). The highest number of total tillers hill-1 (13.82.), length of panicle (22.34 cm), number of grains panicle-1 (122.74), weight of 1000-grains (24.57 g), grain yield (6.40 t ha-1) and harvest index (50.72%) were obtained at the treatment with 25% of BRRI recommended dose + 75% N from poultry manure. The highest plant height (89.78 cm), straw yields (10.89 t ha-1) were obtained from the treatment with 50% of BRRI recommended dose + 50% N from poultry manure. The interaction between varieties and integrated nutrient management showed significant effect on the studied characters. The highest number of total tillers hill-1 (15.47), weight of 1000-grain (25.07 g) were obtained from the interaction between variety BRRI dhan28 and 25% of BRRI recommended dose + 75% N from poultry manure. The highest number of grains panicle-1 (140.05), grain yield (6.47 t ha-1) and harvest index (50.91%) were obtained from the interaction of variety BRRI dhan29 with 25% of BRRI recommended dose + 75% N from poultry manure. The lowest number of total tillers hill-1 (9.31), grain yield (4.36 t ha-1), and harvest index (45.11%) were obtained from the interaction of the variety BRRI dhan29 with BRRI recommended dose of fertilizer. Key words: Nutrient management, BRRI dhan29, yield.

Introduction

Integrated nutrient management is imperative for crop production in a sustainable way. Among the available sources of N, cowdung and poultry manure are rich in N content. Cowdung is the commonly practices organic manure for crop cultivation in Bangladesh. The long term research reveals that addition of cowdung at the rate of 5 t ha-1 improved the rice productivity as well as prevented the soil resources from degradation (Bhuiyan, 1994). Poultry manure is also the most important considering factor. Approximately 75% of the total nitrogen in poultry manure are available for plant during the year of application. When poultry manure is applied with nitrogenous fertilizers, it helps to release the nutrient elements slowly during the period of crop growth. Application of urea in combination with cowdung may enhance the productivity of rice. So, integrated use of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers can contribute to increase in the N content of rice soil as well as to increase in long term productivity and enhancement of ecological sustainability. Experiment with urea N in combination with poultry manure and cowdung in rice found that application of manures and different doses of urea (N fertilizer) significantly increased the yield components and grain and straw yields (Rahman et al., 2009). Moreover, a suitable combination of variety and rate of fertilizer dose is necessary for better yield. Though rice is one of the most important crops of the world, enough information regarding the varieties of rice and their response to organic manure and nitrogen 103

Performance evaluation for system of rice intensification (SRI) and farmers’ practice in boro rice cultivation

ABSTRACT

The experiment was conducted at the village Boyra Sesmore, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh from December 2012 to May 2013 to study the yield and economics of SRI and farmers method of Boro rice cv.BRRIdhan29 cultivation. The experiment consisted of a) cultivation of rice only by 10 tha-1 cowdung (T1), b) recommended SRI package (T2) with 5 tha-1 of decomposed cowdung +100% of recommend fertilizer RF; this coincides with the original concept of SRI), c) SRI modification-1 (T3) with 100% of RF; SRI concept suggest to use manure), d) SRI modification-2 (T4) (with 5 t ha-1 of decomposed cowdung + 50% of RF; 50 : 50 use of manure: fertilizer), e) modification-3 (T5) with 10 t ha-1 of decomposed cowdung +50% of RF; 50% manure + 50% dose of fertilizer), f) Farmers practice of rice cultivation (T6). The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The effect of various cultivation methods of SRI was significant in respect of all plant characters except plant height. The tallest plant height (100.23 cm), the highest number of total tillers hill-1 (35.01), effective tillers hill-1 (28.00), grains panicle-1 (152.60), grain yield (7.50 t ha-1) and straw yield (9.41 t ha-1) were obtained with 5 t ha-1 of decomposed cowdung +100% of recommend fertilizer RF (T2); of SRI and the highest number of non-effective tillers hill-1 (6.58) was obtained from 10 t ha-1 of decomposed cowdung +50% of RF; 50% manure + 50% dose of fertilizer (T5). The shortest plant height (92.85 cm) and the lowest grain yield (3.57 t ha-1) were obtained from farmers own practice of cultivation. The lowest number of total tillers hill-1 (22.82) was obtained from only use cowdung, effective tillers hill-1 (17.00), grains panicle-1 (92.09) were recorded from cultivation of rice in T1. The highest number of total cost of production (154397.00tk) was obtained from 5 tha-1 of decomposed cowdung +100% of recommend fertilizer (T2) and lowest cost of production was (61957tk) observed from farmers own practice of rice cultivation . The lowest number of net return (27349.67tk) and the lowest BCR (1.18) was obtained from 100% of recommend fertilizer (T3). Key words: SRI, BRRI dhan29, manure, fertilizer, yields.

Introduction

System of Rice Intensification (SRI) has attracted attention because of its apparent success in increasing rice yield. It is claiming to be a superior technology (Barrett et al., 2004) which can increase the yield to a fantastic level (Sheehy et al., 2004). SRI was originated in Madagascar and was first synthesized by de Laulanie (1983), a French Jesuit priest. SRI raises productivity not by relying on external inputs, e.g., new seeds and fertilizer, but by changing the way farmers manage their rice plants, soil, water and nutrients (Uphoff, 2007). The success of SRI method of rice cultivation depends on the synergistic development of both tiller and root system. The main elements of SRI are to transplant young seedlings that preserve the full genetic potential for producing more viable tillers and root growth, to give the plants wide spacing with single seedling that can reduce competition between hills and keep the soil well-aerated that can allow maximum uptake of nutrients (Uphoff, 1999). In SRI method there are some components that are to be maintained properly for obtaining the maximum return from the method. For example, under this system less than 15 day old infant seedlings are transplanted within 30 minutes of uprooting with single seedling hill-1 and having spacing not less than 25 cm x 25 cm even up to 50 cm x 50 cm in square method of planting. Rice plants can better realize their potential for tiller and root growth and for subsequent grain filling when spaced more widely rather than more densely. Yield depends on the number and size of fertile tillers cm-1 rather than per plant, but total plant performance can be enhanced with optimum spacing rather than crowding. The seedlings are transplanted so that their roots remain in `L’ shape instead of traditional 92

Impacts of integrated plant nutrients system on T. aman rice yield as well as soil properties (organic carbon and nitrogen content) under different tillage management

ABSTRACT

Depletion of soil fertility is a major constraint to higher production in Bangladesh. Optimum use of fertilizers
along with the good management practices such as tillage and residue management are the key to success of
achieving higher and sustainable crop yields. The present study was carried out at the Soil Science Field
Laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during aman season of 2018, to study the
impact of different tillage system, crop residue retention and Integrated Plant Nutrition System (IPNS) on soil
chemical properties and yield of rice. The experiment was laid out in a split-split-plot design with two tillage
system 1) single passing of a power tiller at 0-5 cm depth (minimum tillage) and 2) four times ploughing of
soil at 0-15 cm depth (conventional tillage) in main plot; two residue treatments (with residue and without
residue) in sub plots and three IPNS treatments (recommended fertilizer dose, livestock compost and bioslurry) on sub-sub plot. Urea, TSP, MOP, Gypsum, and zinc sulphate were used as a source of N, P, K, S and
Zn and the recommended rate of fertilizer application followed the Fertilizer Recommendation Guide 2012.
Each treatment was replicated three times. BRRI dhan 71 was used as a test crop. Results showed that grain
yield and straw yield of rice were significantly influenced with different tillage system (p > 0.05). The effect
of tillage on soil organic carbon in T. aman rice field was significant (p > 0.05). Total nitrogen content was
significantly influenced by the IPNS (p > 0.01). The interactions of tillage x residue x IPNS did not show
significant effect on rice yield, soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in soil.
Key words: Minimum tillage, crop residue retention, bio-slurry, rice.
Introduction
IPNS (Integrated Plant Nutrition System) is a holistic approach to plant nutrition by obtaining the nutrients
from both inorganic and organic source to maintain and sustain soil fertility and enhance crop productivity
in a framework of an ecologically compatible, socially acceptable, technically appropriate and
economically viable situation. Concurrently, it encourages, informs, trains and organizes farmers to
increase crop production while sustaining soil productivity. Nevertheless, it is true that applying livestock
manure to soil can enhance soil fertility and crop growth (Gina et al. 2006). Residual effects of manure or
compost application on crop production and soil properties can last for several years (Bahman Eghball et
al. 2005). Integrated use of organic manure and chemical fertilizers would be quite promising not only in
providing greater stability in production, but also in maintaining better soil fertility. The long-term research
at BARI revealed that the application of cowdung @ 5 t ha-1 year-1
improved rice productivity as well as
prevented the soil resources from degradation (Bhuiyan, 1994). Poultry manure is another good source of
nutrients in soil. Organic manure can supply a good amount of plant nutrients and therefore can contribute
to crop yields. Therefore, it is necessary to use fertilizer and manure in an integrated way in order to obtain
sustainable crop yield without declining soil fertility. On the other hand, tillage is considered to be the
oldest and the most fundamental farm activity of mankind for crop production. It is the practices of
working the soil for the purpose of bringing about more favourable condition for plant growth. Tillage
operation influences soil physical properties, crop yield, water conservation, root growth, nutrient
availability and distribution. No tillage is encouraged by conservation agriculture for crop production. It
resists the soil from erosion, conserves moisture and reduces energy but weed, insect and disease

Exploring the state of soil chemical properties linked to salinity in south-central coast Bangladesh

ABSTRACT

It is well known that soil is the basic media for agriculture, on which crop yield is mostly depended; hence the study analyzed nine important soil nutrients collected from 32 specified locations in Barishal and Patuakhali districts (16 from Barishal and 16 from patuakhali ) during the period of 2017 to 2019. The soil nutrients were measured in Khulna University Environmental Science Discipline Laboratory, Khulna. The pH values ranged 6.7 to 7.8 in Barishal district. In Patuakhali district, pH ranged 5.8-7.3, which proved the quite acidity in soil. The detected EC values in Barishal were below 1 in most of the cases. On the other hand, the soil EC measured as 0.06-7.1 ds/m in Patuakhali district. About half of the samples confirmed the desired OM with the values 0.91-2.53% OM in Barishal district. Other remaining samples did not ensure the desired value fallen up to 0.91%. The values of OM were higher OM in Patuakhali district ranged as 0.91-2.53%. The total N content in the soil was generally very low to low, ranging from 0.053-0.168 and 0.053-0.129% in Barishal and Patuakhali districts, respectively. In surface soil, the available phosphorus (P) content ranged from (5.75 to 11 µg/g) with the mean values 8.879 µg/g in Barishal district, while the average P value was 7,400 µg/g varied as 4.29-13.16 µg/g in Patuakhali district. The K values obtained confirmed the sufficient K values both in Barishal and Patuakhali districts compared to std. values for FRG (2012). The study detected the amount of S as 11.01-94.98 µg/g in Barishal district, but 12.44 -172.39 µg/g in Patuakhali. The extreme level of S was measured due to frequent handling S containing chemicals/materials in the rural coastal agricultural fields of Bangladesh. The analyzed Zn amount recorded as 0.31-0.66 µg/g in Barishal districts, which confirmed the lower Zn, whereas, optimum (0.10-1.65 µg/g) in Patuakhali district. The detected B status confirmed the enough B contents in Patuakahli soil.

Key words: Salinity, chemical properties, central-coast.

Introduction

Various types of environmental issues and problems are hindering the development of coastal livelihood of Bangladesh. Salinity is one of them, which is expected to aggravate by climate change and sea level rise and eventually affect food production. Bangladesh has 147,570 km2 land area that includes 710 km coastal line along the Bay of Bengal (BBS, 2003). In Bangladesh about 0.883 million hectares of the arable lands, which constitutes about 52.8 percent of the net cultivable area in 64 Upazilas of 13 districts, are affected by varying degrees of soil salinity (Karim et al., 1990). A recent study indicates that the salinity affected area has increased from 8,330 km2 in 1973 to 10,560 km2 in 2009 (SRDI, 2010). Tidal flooding occurs during wet season (June-October), direct inundation by saline water and upward on lateral movement of saline ground water during the dry season (November-May) (Haque, 2006). In addition, cyclone and tidal surge is accelerating this problem (Abedin, 2010). In the coastal areas of Bangladesh, saline water is used for irrigation which reduces the growth of most agricultural crops (Murtaza et al., 2006). Salinity is causing decline in soil productivity and crop yield which results in severe degradation of bio-environment and ecology as well as responsible for low cropping intensity in coastal area (Rahman and Ahsan, 2001). Rice (Oryza sativa L. spp. indica) is one of the five main carbohydrate crops responsible for feeding the world’s population including Asian countries and more than 3 billion people which comprises 50%-80% of their daily calorie intake from rice (Khush, 2005). Rice has previously been reported as salt susceptible in both seedling (Munns and Tester, 2008), and reproductive stages (Moradi and Ismail, 2007) leading to a reduction of more than 50% in yield when exposed to 6.65 dSm-1 EC (Zeng and Shannon, 2000). Ali 78