Varietal performance of bari blackgram in comparison to local cultivated variety at bogra region of bangladesh

ABSTRACT
The experiment was conducted during Kharif 2 season of 2017-18 in the farmer’s field of Dolirkandi and Boisaki sites under the upazila Sariakandi and Dhunut of Bogura district. Two varieties of blackgram viz. BARI Mash-3 and Local (check) were tested in both locations. The experiments were laid out in RCB Design with three replications having plot size 1320 m2. The highest plant height was found in local cultivar than that of BARI Mash-3 in both of the locations, which is one the strong ground to achieve more yields in blackgram. The performance was best up to 35% for pod characteristics and about 47% more yields were acquired from BARI Mash-3 compared to local/cultivated variety in Dolirkandi site. On the other hand the performance was best up to 34% for pod characteristics and about 13% more yields were acquired from BARI Mash-3 compared to local/cultivated variety in Boisaki site.

Key words: Black gram, varietal performance, BARI Mash-3, local variety, yield.

Introduction

Blackgram (Vigna mungo) belongs to the family leguminosae, is one of the important pulse crops in Bangladesh. It is used in various forms such as grain for human consumption and fodder for cattle, green manure, cover crop and short-lived forage. It is a fast growing, short season, drought tolerant, (Pillai and Arasuya, 1997) and low input promising crop for south East Asia. The national average yield of black gram in Bangladesh is low. This low yield may be due to the cultivation of the low yielding local varieties, incidence of diseases and insects, lack of technical knowledge etc. BARI already developed some high yielding blackgram varieties. These varieties have potential to help generate farmers’ income in very short period of time. Great circulation of these varieties in different areas of Bangladesh is perquisite in respect of grain crop security in Bangladesh. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of the BARI variety under farmer’s field condition and make popularized among the farmers to promote their adoption in char land of Bogura.

Materials and Methods

The experiment was conducted during Kharif 2 season of 2017-18 in the farmer’s field of Dolirkandi and Boisaki sites under the upazila Sariakandi and Dhunut of Bogura district. Two varieties of blackgram viz. BARI Mash-3 and Local (check) were tested in both locations. The experiments were laid out in RCB Design with three replications having plot size 1320 m2. Seeds were sown on 22nd September 2017 in Dolirkandi and 28th September 2017 in Boisaki. Soil was fertilized with NPK at the rate of 20.74, 20 and 20 kgha-1, respectively. The crop was harvested during 14th December 2017 in Dolirkandi and 20th December 2017 in Boisaki. At harvest, 10 randomly selected plants from each plot were carefully uprooted to record plant height (measured from the root-stem junction to the top of the shoot), number of pods/plant, number of seeds/pod, 1000 seed weight and seed yield. The yield per plot was recorded and converted into yield per hectare. Collected data were analyzed statistically by using MSTAT software packages and mean differences for each character were compared by Least Significant Differences (LSD) test (Gomez and Gomez. 1984).

Extent of pesticide uses for sustainable ladies finger production at climatic hazards prone coastal Rampal Upazila Bangladesh

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted from November 2018 to May 2019 to investigate various aspects of pesticides use in ladies finger cultivation at coastal Rampal Upazila Bagerhat district. In the research, data were collected through preparatory and pre-tested questionnaires related to the characteristics of ladies finger growers, frequency of pesticide use and its environmental aspects. A total of 150 farmers were randomly selected for the critical analysis of pesticides used in ladies finger cultivation. Ten FGDs were conducted on the survey site. During the interview, it was discovered that participants had been cultivating ladies finger since 19.8 years and had almost 30 decimals land. The survey also showed that farmers’ monthly incomes were almost 30,000 Tk. The study comprehensively stated that the growers used five different types of pesticides, where more frequently used Cypermethrin (79%) over a period of 7 to 10 days interval. They maintained a mid-term safe period (9-12 days) prior to the ladies finger harvest after application of insecticides. The bad sign is the use of higher doses, which must be minimized immediately, and consultation with the Agricultural Extension Department (DAE) is most welcome. After using insecticides, they safely discarded empty packages and bottles, which were usually buried underground. While spraying, they followed different types of health/safety principles/regulations, of these the most commonly followed were spraying accordingly wind direction and paid little attention to eating. Although pesticides increased the ladies finger yield, farmers showed their dissatisfaction with expensive and ineffective action. So they often demand cheap prices and effective pesticides for vegetables.

Key words: pesticides, sustainable environment, ladies finger, Rampala upazila.

Introduction

Pesticides are used to better protect the field crops from estimated damage caused by insects and pests. Despite all the advanced techniques used to grow crops, pest control cannot be ignored. Oerke et al. (1995) reported several hundred success stories in which chemical pesticides provided complete plant protection and increased yield drastically. Pesticides and related agricultural chemicals have thus become an integral part of sustainable agriculture mostly in developing countries. Occasionally, several pests attack completely and damage standing crops. This enormous loss can be overcome by adopting appropriate practices for quality pesticides and pest control on the farmer’s field. Commercial farmers are currently completely dependent on the use of pesticides for insect control. Now days it is assumed that the irrational use of pesticides and harvesting vegetables after 1-2 days of pesticides used, is the normal practice (Kabir et al., 1996). On the other hand, the widespread use of pesticides has caused the environmental contamination, namely soil, air, water and food; even under well-managed conditions, application of spray materials remain into soil, water, and other biotic materials is likely to cause residue deposition. Over the past three decades, the selective use of chemical pesticides in agriculture has caused serious health and environmental problems in developing countries like Bangladesh (World Resources, 1999). Gani (1997) reported that the use of pesticides also kills beneficial creatures and insects and renders the soil infertile. In addition, the indiscriminate use of pesticides creates insect resistance, which in turn poses an increased threat to the crop. Sattar (1983) reported that pesticides after application directly or indirectly come into contact with plants, livestock, wildlife, aquatic and terrestrial life, the terrestrial environment and pose minor or serious risks to biodiversity. Increased use of pesticides in agriculture has thus led to the presence of residues in

Farmers’ perception about pesticide use on karala (momordicacharantia) production regarding environmental safety at coastal rampal upazila bangladesh

                                                                      ABSTRACT

The coastal area of Bangladesh usually faces a lot of natural hazards and the farmers of this particular region have faced many problems. Hence, the current study was under taken to find out the situation of farmers perception concerning about detrimental effects of pesticide on environment. Uses of pesticide have always been a vital concern for environment as well as in agriculture. Investigating farmers’ understanding of handling pesticide and their residues is very important in order to reduce human factors that negatively affect agricultural and environmental safety. One hundred and fifty farmers were randomly selected for the study. Our results revealed that 59% farmers had education at primary level. During interview it was found that the participants had been cultivating karala/bitter gourd since 18 years. They were using seven different types of pesticides among which Shobicron 425 EC (93%) frequently with an interval of 7-15 days. All most every farmer maintained the safety period at an average level (8-15 days) before harvesting karala after applying insecticides. Most of the farmers discarded the empty packages and bottles through buried them underground. While spraying pesticides they followed different types of health/safety principles/regulations, among the enlisted 5 types of measures mask use was mostly common but paid little attention to smoking. It is concluded to develop a more targeted agricultural extension program, extension organizations and policy makers should focus on these factors, in that case will be more responsive concerning the adverse effects of pesticides which is friendly for sustainable agricultural production as well as sustainable environment.

Key words: pesticides, farmers’ perception, sustainable environment, Rampala upazila.

Introduction

Environment and agriculture have forever been inter-linked. Agricultural production is depended on the environmental resources. Due to industrial and agricultural emission world’s environment is slowly degrading which may cause serious damage to lives on earth and this is very alarming situation for all of us. Beside industry it has been an established fact that agricultural sector is also polluting environment on a local, regional and global basis. Pesticide, an agricultural input was introduced in Bangladesh in 1957 and mainly DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) and BHC (also known as gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane /γ-HCH/gammaxene/Gammallin/and sometimes incorrectly called benzene hexachloride) were used in farmer level free of cost by the government until 1973. Next, the pesticides are becoming very popular to farmers. In 1974 the subsidy was reduced to 50% and completely withdrawn in 1979 (Islam, 2000). In 1979-80, the Government of Bangladesh transferred the trade-in pesticides (import, production and marketing) to the private sector. However, pesticide use in Bangladesh has increased from 758 tones in 1960; 3028 tones in 1980 and more than 19,000 tones in 2000 (Hasanuzzoha, 2004). The consumption of pesticides around the world has also increased rapidly in the last fifty years, due to believing that growth is likely to increase by pesticide, especially in developing countries (Yudelman et al., 1998). The use of pesticides has been recognized and accepted as an essential ingredient in modern agriculture for the control of pests that damage crops. It is used not only to improve crop production technology also to deliver quality products. But the concern is that most of the farmers in our country are illiterate and unable to read and understand the written instructions of the label. So, the irrational use of pesticides and the sale of vegetables before safe days may cause health disorder of human (Kabir et al., 1996). Distinction and excessive use of

Standardization of NPK fertilizer doses for better seed yield and quality of hybrid chili

Standardization of NPK fertilizer doses for better seed yield and quality of hybrid chili

ABSTRACT
The effect of NPK fertilizer on quality seed production of chilies (Capsicum fruescens L.) (cv. Sonic) crossing male line (LTSL-004-M) and female line (LTSL-004-F) was evaluated at Germplasm Centre and Plant Biotechnology Lab, Department of Horticulture, PSTU during the period from November 2014 to October 2015. Ten different treatments of NPK fertilizer viz. T1: 110 kg N + 175 kg P + 96 kg K ha-1, T2: 119 kg N + 210 kg P + 96 kg K ha–1, T3: 132 kg N + 175 kg P + 96 kg K ha–1, T4: 145 kg N + 175 kg P + 96 kg K ha–1, T5: 110 kg N + 190 kg P + 96 kg K ha–1, T6: 110 kg N + 210 kg P + 96 kg K ha–1, T7: 110 kg N + 231 kg P + 96 kg K ha–1, T8: 110 kg N + 175 kg P + 104 kg K ha–1, T9: 110 kg N + 175 kg P + 115 kg K ha–1 and T10: 110 kg N + 175 kg P + 127 kg K ha–1 were used in this experiment. The study revealed that T4 produced the highest yield of seed (40.27 kg ha–1), which is statistical similar to T8. In seed viability characteristics, T9 treated seeds showed the highest germination (100, 97.33 and 94.97%) at 1st (after harvest), 2nd (2 MAH- Month after harvest) and 3rd (4 MAH) observations, respectively. The T3 treated seeds performed well in respect of Seed Vigor Index (SVI) at 1st and 2nd observations (8.00 and 7.48, respectively) but T9 at 3rd observation.

Key words: NPK fertilizer, chili, seed yield, germination, viability, vigor.

Introduction

Chilies (Capsicum frutescens L.) is the third important crop of family Solanaceae after tomato and potato (Naz, 2006). It grows best on a well drained, silt or clay loam soil. The yield of Chilies depends on adequate supply of the essential nutrients (Alabi, 2006). Nutrient supply is an important aspect of the improved technologies developed and whose widespread adoption continues to ensure higher fruit yields, better quality and yield stability. Nitrogen plays a vital role as a constituent of protein, nucleic acid and chlorophyll (Devlin, 1972). Adequate nitrogen increases the quality, fruit size, keeping quality, color and taste (Shukla and Nair, 1993). Nitrogen influences flower development of several vegetable crops including pepper, tomato and cucumber (Kinet et al., 1985). Phosphorus is also one of the important macro essential elements for normal growth and development of plant (Bose and Som, 1986). The effect of phosphorus on the formation and translocation of carbohydrates, roots development, nodulation, growth and other agronomic characters are well recognized. Phosphorus induces earliness in flowering and fruiting including seed formation (Buckman and Brady, 1980). Again secondary mechanism of interference was the absorption of phosphorus from the soil through luxury consumption, increasing the tissue content without enhancing smooth biomass accumulation (Santos et al., 2004). The high quality of seed in terms of viability and vigor are the essential factors which determine the seedling development in nursery and plant establishment in the field to get higher yield with high quality seed (Kodalli, 2006). Payerol and Bhangoo (1990) reported that there was gradual decrease in viability parameters of chili seed starting from 6 months to 20 months of ambient storage. The scientists of Lal Teer Seed Limited are trying their best to identify high yielding variety through their research works. In present, the scientists of Lal Teer Seed Limited have already identified and producing some high yielding varieties and some hybrid varieties through CMS (Cytoplasmic Male Sterility) line by hand pollination method. But in respect of hybrid seed they are facing continuous losing seed viability problem in course of time. Up to three months of producing about 90% seeds are germinated but after that, it starts to reduce. So they cannot ensure the farmers to supply hybrid seed against their requirement. Therefore, the main objectives of the investigation were to standardize the different combinations of NPK fertilizers to produce good quality F1 seed from CMS line and assure long storage.

Assessment of heavy metals contents in water and sediments of the Meghna river in Bangladesh

Assessment of heavy metals contents in water and sediments of the Meghna river in Bangladesh

ABSTRACT
A study was determined the heavy metals concentration in water and sediments of the Meghna river during the period from April to December 2018. The water and sediments samples were collected in monthly basis covering both in wet (April to June) as well as dry seasons (October to December) from three sampling stations as St-1 (Kauriapara), St-2 (Nagoriakandi) and St-3 (Kamargaon). In water, available Pb, Cu, Zn and Mn contents were varied seasonally and spatially from 0.002 to 0.0.019, 0.00 to 0.026, 0.001 to 0.082 and 0.003 to 0.062 mg/l, respectively. The Zn was the most abundant in the water during dry season as Zn is normally associated with a variety of other metal activities and mining. In sediments, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Fe contents were also varied seasonally and spatially from 6.34 to 20.46, 1.39 to 28.06, 81.30 to 98.90 and 2274.28 to 34.62.10 mg/kg, respectively. The Fe content in all sediment samples were above the EPA guideline whereas the content of Cu and Zn fall in the criteria of moderately polluted range. So, the water is not completely safe for aquatic organisms in respect of heavy metal pollution in the Meghna river.

Key words: Heavy metal, Meghna river, water and sediment

Introduction

Water is known as blue gold, one of the most priceless gifts of nature is also regarded as the life line on earth, because evolution of life and development of human civilization could not have been possible without water (Islam et al., 2015). Again the river water quality is a key concern as it is used for drinking and domestic purposes, irrigation and aquatic life including fish and fisheries (Uddin et al., 2014). Large number of rivers flowing through Bangladesh originated outside of the country and these carry heavy loads of sediments and other debris including domestic wastes, agrochemicals and industrial wastes from local and far places. Thus making the water body saturated and times over saturated with organic and inorganic pollutants which creates serious environmental impacts. So, pollution become serious problem all over the world and is getting aggravated in developing countries particularly like Bangladesh (Sarker, 2005). Bangladesh is one of the most polluted countries, which currently holds 1176 industries that discharge about 0.4 million m3 of untreated waste to the rivers in a day (Rabbani and Sharif, 2005). The industrial discharge is one of the major sources of heavy metal. Heavy metals are stable, xenobiotic and are nonbiodegradable, once taken they persist in the body, tissues and cells. Exposure to the toxic environment is done by inhalation of air contaminated with metal dusts, fumes and small particle generated by combustions, intake of contaminated food, eating at contaminated site, eating without washing hands (Bhargava et al., 2017). Studies on heavy metals in rivers, lakes, fish and sediments have been a major environmental focus especially during the last decade (Fernandes et al., 2008; Pote et al., 2008; Praveena et al., 2008). Heavy metals accumulation and distribution in sediments, water and environment are increasing at an alarming rate causing deposition and sedimentation in water reservoirs and affecting aquatic organisms as well (Mohiuddin et al., 2011).Though some metals like Fe, Cu and Zn are essential micronutrients, they can be detrimental to the physiology of the living organisms at higher concentrations (Kar et al., 2008; Nair et al., 2010). Others like chromium, lead, cadmium, arsenic, etc. exhibit extreme toxicity even at trace levels (Miller et al., 2003).Once the heavy metals are consumed they keep on accumulating and at higher concentration they form complex compounds within the cells and tissues, leading to diseases. On intake, the heavy metals become integral part of some body parts like bones, kidney, liver and brain (Bhargava et al., 2017). Acute Pb poisoning may results in a dysfunction in the kidney, reproduction system, liver and brain resulting in sickness and death. Zinc compounds affect the

Assessing the impacts of pond water qualities on abundance of aquatic insects in Chittagong university campus

Assessing the impacts of pond water qualities on abundance of aquatic insects in Chittagong university campus

ABSTRACT
The physical and chemical properties of water are of great importance for the survival of aquatic organisms. Aquatic insect abundance depends on these physicochemical parameters of water. A faunistic survey of the aquatic insects from three ponds of Chittagong University Campus was made for a period of twelve months whereby a total at 2490 aquatic insects belonging to six insect orders were collected. Physicochemical parameters of water of the three experimental ponds were measured in terms of water depth, Secchi depth, air temperature, water temperature, conductivity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), free Carbondioxide (fCO2) and Calcium (Ca++) for the same period. The abundance of the aquatic insects was influenced by the physical condition of the ponds as well as the physicochemical parameters of the water. In most cases the relationship between the total abundance of aquatic insect orders and the physicochemical properties of water of the three experimental ponds were positively correlated with Secchi depth, air and water temperature, pH, DO and Calcium but negatively correlated with water depth, conductivity, BOD and fCO2.

Key words: Aquatic insect, abundance, physicochemical parameters, pond, correlation

Introduction

The presence of aquatic insects in the environment is correlated with diverse factors (Wetzel 1982). Temperature is a factor which is essential for growth of organisms. Depth of water body has also some influence in the community structure of wetland ecosystem. Turbidity is directly related with light and insects can live in optimum limit of turbidity. Conductivity is the presence of molecular electrolytes (acids, bases, and salts in solution) in water. DO indicate the concentration of oxygen content of natural waters. The pH is a measurement of the level of acid or alkali in a solution. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) refers to the amount of oxygen that would be consumed if all the organics in one liter of water were oxidized by bacteria and protozoa. Calcium is also an important limiting factor for abundance and growth of aquatic animals depending on the source and treatment of the water. Signs of water quality deterioration are evident in the result of the physicochemical analyses. In low conductivity water aquatic organisms dominate, as most organisms in low conductivity water bodies maintain high internal ion concentration relative to its surrounding medium. And also certain physiological effects on animals are affected by the number of available ions indicated by amount of TDS. DO concentration is also important, as beside the respiratory process of the organisms, the solubility and availability of nutrients also depend on DO concentration of an aquatic body, hence having direct effect on aquatic lives. Decrease of DO level of a water body below 5mg/l put aquatic life under stress. As BOD is an indication of pollution index, hence the higher the BOD values the greater will be its unsuitability for aquatic lives. Similarly, the lesser the free CO2 value of water the better will be the water quality for sustaining aquatic lives. pH influences many biological and chemical processes in organisms, hence lower pH puts aquatic lives under stress. A good number of scientific works are available on aquatic insects in different parts of the world. Hsu and Yang (1997, 2005), Wolf et al. (1999) and Traichaiyaporn (2000) studied on the relationship of macro- invertebrates especially aquatic insects with water quality. Chiangthong (2005) studied on water quality analysis in Chiang Rai province of Thailand and determined the insects as bioindicator of the water qualities. Thani and Phalaraksh (2008) studied on aquatic insect’s diversity and water quality of Mekong river of Thailand. Purkayastha and Gupta (2012) studied on insect diversity and water quality parameters of