ABSTRACT
The survey was conducted in 2018 at Polder 32 in Dacope Upazial of the coastal Khulna district of
Bangladesh. Polder 32 is constituted of two unions, including Kamarkhola and Sutarkhali. One hundred fifty
(150) farmers in Polder 32 were selected as the sampling of this study. In this study, an interview method was
used. A pre-tested structured interview schedule was carefully prepared covering the research objectives in
mind to gather relevant data. Excellent cooperation has been obtained from respondents and others in the
study area. Researchers have also collected documents from various organizations, such as the Upazila
Agriculture Department, for this purpose. In this study, five characteristics of respondents were selected as
independent variables, including age, educational background, annual income, communication exposure, and
farmers’ knowledge on climate change. On the other hand, the study includes a dependent variable, the extent
of agricultural adaptation of its impacts on climate change. This variable was measured based on various
aspects of adaptation. The adaptation score was calculated based on respondents’ adaptation for 20 aspects.
The study revealed that the educational level of farmers in the study area was in secondary level and most of
the respondents were of middle aged. Consequently, most of the respondents had medium level of knowledge
on climate change. The study also revealed that most of the respondents were within medium level of income
having the average value of 48.46 thousand tk. per annual. This study explored that “Right controlling of
sluice gate by beneficiaries” and “cultivation of salt-tolerant crops” ranked in the 1
st and 2nd positions,
respectively. On the other hand “support from NGOs” received the lowest score (131), thus ranking last in the
ranking for agricultural adaptation to climate change.
Key words: Adaptation, climate changes, agriculture.
Introduction
Climate change and variability are already affecting the lives and livelihoods of people living in coastal,
arid and semi-arid regions of Bangladesh. Floods, tropical cyclones, storms and droughts are becoming
more common and will become even more severe in the coming decades. These changes threaten the
significant achievements of Bangladesh, which is ensured from the last two decades in raising income,
reducing poverty and achieving self-sufficiency in rice production (BCCFR, 2013). Warm climates
generally accelerate plant growth and development, but extremely cool or hot climates can also affect
productivity. In the past few decades, early flowering and maturity of various crops have been recorded,
often associated with higher temperatures (Craufurd and Wheeler, 2009). Elevated maximum temperatures
(such as climate and weather) can cause severe yield loss and unsuccessful reproduction in many crops
(Lobell et al., 2011). However, the human population is vulnerable to the consequences of climate change,
mainly because of the socio-economic and political background in which they live. Therefore, vulnerability
climate change is particularly differentiated by geography, income levels, types of livelihoods, and
governance (O’Brien et al., 2007).
Coastal ecosystems, especially in the southwest, are strongly associated with salinity. Salinity in
Bangladesh affected 8.33 million hectares of land in 1973 and reached 102 million hectares in 2000. In
2009, it increased to 105.6 million hectares. Over the past 35 years, salinity has increased to 26% in the
country (SRDI, 2010). Another study shows that the salinity has extended 8330 square kilometers in 1973
to 10560 square kilometers in 2009 (SRDI, 2010). However, it has been observed that not all coastal
agricultural land is used for crop production, mainly due to soil salinity. Increased salinity limits the growth