ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to assess ambient air qualities at some locations of Gazipur City. The sampling was done at eight stations of Gazipur City for 30 minutes duration using ‘Aeroqual Series 500’ during the month of January (dry season), 2023. The concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, CO2, CO, O3, NO2, CH4, NH3, SO2 ranged from 0.21 – 0.43 mg/m3, 0.35 – 1.00 mg/m3, 1103 – 1507.67 mg/m3, 0.03 – 3.86 mg/m3, 0 – 0.03 mg/m3, 0.094 – 0.097 mg/m3, 0 – 4.66 mg/m3, 0.06 – 0.30 mg/m3, 0 – 0.23 mg/m3, respectively. The detected levels of PM2.5, PM10 and SO2 exceeded APCR (2022); WHO and US standards. NO2 was found below the limit of APCR (2022) standards but exceeded WHO limit. The higher values of CO2, CH4, and NH3 were observed due to industrial and vehicular emissions. Heavy coal burning in the brickfields near Gazipur City may have contributed to the high concentration of SO2. To reduce emissions, appropriate engine design control techniques, maintenance services and an efficient solid waste management system should be implemented. The development of a regulatory framework to restrict emissions from construction sites and adapting immediate action programs is required to overcome the threat of existing air pollution in the study area.

Key words: Air quality, assessment, Gazipur city.

Introduction

Air pollution is a major threatening environmental health risk for Bangladesh. Air pollution is caused by agro-based businesses including sugar, pulp, paper, tanneries, and textile, apparel, pharmaceutical, oil refinery, fertilizer, and chemical manufacturing in this country (Haque, et al., 2020). The level of pollution in metropolitan centers of Bangladesh remain rising due to the emission from diesel run vehicles, brick kilns and dust from roads and construction sites and toxic fumes from industries. Prior to 1999, there was little to no administrative government effort to monitor or reduce ambient air pollution in Bangladesh. In 1999, the government began establishing frameworks and regulations to meet USEPA and Bangladesh National Air Quality standards, especially for Dhaka City. A number of controls have been implemented to attain the ambient air quality including the substitution of compressed natural gas (CNG) for two-stroke engines in three-wheelers, which was a revolutionary move for the progressive improvement of the overall air quality (Salam et al., 2013) and the reduction of the lead present in the air. One of Bangladesh’s most sophisticated industrial cities, Gazipur City is recently dealing with a tremendous increase in population and physical expansion (BBS, 2015). The ambient PM level in this city is being influenced by the burning of biomass and coal in brickfields, vehicle exhaust, industrial pollutants, and residential emissions and the high particulate matter (PM) levels and reduced vision throughout the winter are becoming major issues (Mukta et al., 2020). This study hence, was carried out: i) to measure the air quality parameters such as PM2.5, PM10, CO2, CO, O3, NO2, CH4, NH3 and SO2 in eight locations of Gazipur City, ii) to compare the analyzed values with available standards and iii) To draw appropriate recommendations regarding building green Gazipur city in Bangladesh.

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