Impact of flood induced siltation on maize production: An empirical evidence in Gaibandha district of Bangladesh

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to estimate the comparative profitability of silted and non-silted areas of maize production in Gaibandha district of Bangladesh. In total, 60 farmers were randomly selected from the villages of Gaibandha Sadar, Sundarganj, and Fulchori upazilas of Gaibandha district. Both tabular and statistical analyses were applied considering the objectives of the study. Data were collected from selected respondents through the direct interview method using a well-designed, pre-tested structured questionnaire. Gross margin analysis was used to measure farmer’s profitability. The study revealed that maize production was a profitable enterprise. Per hectare Gross return, gross margin, and net return were Tk. 318696,            Tk. 220607.47, and Tk. 198772.66, respectively, for silted area, whereas, hectare wise gross return, gross margin, and net return for non-silted area were Tk. 265616, Tk. 159245, and Tk. 136585.38, respectively. The benefit cost ratios (BCR) were found to be 2.66 and 2.06 for silted and non-silted areas, respectively, which implies that one taka of investment in maize production generated Tk. 2.66 in silted areas and Tk. 2.06 in non-silted areas. Cobb-Douglas production function analysis indicated that out of seven variables, the effects of labor, cow dung, seed cost, and siltation had a positive and significant impact on the gross return from maize production. In spite of all the constraints, there was a great prospect for maize farming in the study area as a profitable enterprise.

Key words: Maize, Gross margin, BCR

Introduction

 Bangladesh has a great chance to maintain this amount of maize flow if maize farming, processing, and marketing are developed in a scientific manner. The optimum soil for growing maize is non-water-logging soil like sandy loam or loamy soil. Due to the growth of the livestock and poultry industries, maize demand has surged in Bangladesh in recent years. Maize is a highly productive and nutritious crop that is used as human food, poultry feed, and livestock fodder (Borase et al. 2018). It contains a lot of vitamin B and trace elements (Bojtor et al. 2022). Behind rice and wheat, it is the most important cereal crop for reducing food shortages, poultry feed, and malnutrition. Maize surpasses rice in terms of protein, carotene, and oil content. It should be noted that, despite the low protein quality of rice, Bangladesh uses rice to meet more than 80% of its protein needs. It is unquestionable that if rice is substantially substituted in the diet with maize, protein intake will rise. Because of its lower price and greater productivity than rice and wheat, maize is very popular. Therefore, it is crucial to place a strong emphasis on raising maize output. Today, due to global warming, there is flow loss and the formation of islands. Floods were more frequent in the riverine area. Flood-borne silt nourishes the soil with fertility. Floods and rising river waters inundate Bangladesh’s low-lying territory every year. Most of the charred areas are flooded every year and accumulate huge amounts of silt. Consequently, this silt makes these areas suitable for cultivating some specific crops. People have little opportunity to survive on those lands. Lands in these areas remain waterlogged from June to October almost every year. After that period, this land remains fallow, and nothing is grown with the exception of natural grasses. This soil is perhaps suitable for the production of maize. The recommendations made for the area will be equally applicable for the Char areas of Bangladesh as a whole. In this way, the livelihood of a large number of Char people could be improved. In this study, an attempt has been made to find out the profitability of maize production in Silted lands. Therefore, this study is facilitated to provide valuable information and may be useful for formulating appropriate policies

Ecological aspects of heavy metals in sediments of padma river in Bangladesh

ABSTRACT
The study was piloted to assess the ecological risk of heavy metals in sediments collected from the Padma River in Bangladesh during April to July 2022. The sediment samples were collected from five sampling sites and analyzed in the laboratory of the Soils Science, Dept. of Soil Science, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University using ICP-MS. The mean concentration of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in summer season were 0.59, 0.83, 7.10, 16.23, 5.53 and 44.60 mg/kg, respectively. In winter, the mean concentration of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn are 1.59, 1.22, 10.37, 24.43, 8.07 and 66.97mg/kg, respectively. Metals concentrations were found below the recommended value set by different sediment quality guidelines except for Cd. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the vast majority of the metals in agricultural sediments may originate from both anthropogenic and lithogenic activities. The contamination factor (CF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and potential ecological risk (PER) revealed that most of the soil samples were contaminated by Cd. The geo-accumulation index values showed that most of the samples were poorly contaminated by heavy metals. Sediment sampling sites showed low to moderate potential ecological risk (PER) in the context of PER. The results also described that the pollution load index (PLI) for all investigated samples were lower than the standard level but the growing number of industries may cause advanced
declinations of sediments. However, regular monitoring is needed for the documentation of any alternation in the quality of sediments and minimizes the damage to the benthic ecosystem.
Key words: Heavy metal, Sediments, Spatial distribution, Ecological Risk, Padma River

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Effect of ZN and B application on mustard at madhupur soil under aez 28

ABSTRACT

Mustard (Binasarisha-9) was evaluated against four Zn levels (0, 3, 6, 9 kg Zn ha-1) and three B levels (0, 2, 4 B ha-1) at Madhupur under AEZ 28. The results revealed that there was a significant improvement in the growth and seed yield with increasing level of B and lower Zn levels, respectively. The highest B level        (4 kg ha-1) and lower Zn level (3 kg ha-1)  resulted 96 cm plant height, 5.33 branches plant-1, 86.33 siliqua plant-1, 7.33 cm siliqua length, 28.33 seed siliqua-1 and 1633.30 kg seed ha-1. It is suggested that for achieving higher seed yields in mustard, the Zn application may be done at the rate of 3 kg ha-1 and with B of 4 kg ha-1.

Key words: Boron, Zinc, yield and mustard 

Introduction: The soil of Bangladesh has wide variation and complexity due to diverse nature of physiography, parent materials, land type, drainage conditions and agro ecology. Depending on these aspects, the country has been divided into 30 agro ecological zones (AEZ), which varied greatly in respect of area, land and soil, climate, and cropping intensity (FAO-UNDP, 1988). Some AEZs are very potential for crop agriculture and nutrient supplying capacity but some are being depleted due to intensive cropping. Madhupur Tract (AEZ 28) is one of them. The present study was concentrated to this AEZ which is a region of complex relief and soils are developed over the Madhupur clay. The landscape comprises of level upland, closely or broadly dissected terraces associated with shallow to broad deep valleys. Eleven general soil types exist in the area of which Deep Red Brown Terrace, Deep Red Brown Terrace soils and Acid Basin Clays are the major ones. The soils on the terrace are better drained, friable clay loams to clay overlying friable clay substratum at varying depths. Soils in the valleys are dark grey heavy clays. The top soils are mainly very strongly acidic in reaction but ranges up to slightly acidic with low to medium status of organic matter, low moisture holding capacity and low fertility level. The soils are mainly phosphate fixing low to medium in P, B and K; and medium to optimum in S content. The major land type comprises 56% highland and 18% medium highland (FRG, 2018). Texturally the soils are loam and sandy loam. Over the last 2-3 decades, enormous pressure has been exerted on the soil resource to produce more food for its population. Intensification of agricultural land use has increased remarkably and the cropping intensity has increased from 143% in 1971-72 to about 197% in 2016-2017 (Krishi Diary, 2021). In addition, cultivation of high yielding varieties for all crops has increased remarkably. Consequently, this has resulted in deterioration of soil fertility with emergence of micronutrient deficiency. In this country, chronologically N, P, K, S, Zn and B deficiencies have appeared in soils and crops of Bangladesh (Islam, 2008). Among the micronutrients, next to zinc, boron deficiency is prominent in soils of Dinajpur, Rangpur, Bogra, Sirajganj, Mymensingh, Comilla and Sylhet district (SRDI, 2010). The use of chemical fertilizers as the supplemental source has been increasing steadily but these are not applied in balanced proportion. Of the total fertilizer used in the country, urea alone constituted about 75% (FRG, 2012). Previous study indicated that about 60% cultivable land of Bangladesh is deficient in N, P and K (Miah et al., 2008). Moreover, organic matter content in country’s soils is low, the majority being below the thresh hold level (1.5%) and it was gradually depleted by 5 to 36% during the period of 1967-1995 (Ali et al., 1997). Islam (2008) mentioned that organic matter content in Bangladesh soils is generally around 1% in most and around 2% in few soils.

Investigation of biodiversity status in accordance of simpson’s diversity index and its conservation strategy at Ramsagar national park in Dinajpur district of Bangladesh

ABSTRACT
The present study was designed to assess the biodiversity status at Ramsagar National Park (RNP) inDinajpur district, Bangladesh period from June 2019 to August 2020. Data on the diversity of the floral andfaunal species were gathered using the KII and FGD by forest-responsible persons especially bit officer andforest rangers. A total of 100 residents of the research area participated in a questionnaire survey to performthe study. The study’s findings revealed that 10.09% of climber species, 31.95% of herbs, 13.45.1% of shrubspecies, and 44.51% of tree species made up the total floral diversity. According to the study, RamsagarNational Park’s strong floral variety status was reflected by the Simpson’s diversity index value of 0.97. On
the other hand, 74.23% aves, 13.78% amphibians, 5.31% reptiles, 6.68% mammals and cultivated differenttypes of fish speciesin the aquatic body were found in Park. According to the result of Simpson’s diversityindex, the status of the faunal diversity is very rich and diverse which was 0.93. In the park, there werevarious barriers to the conservation of biodiversity and the growth of ecotourism viz. poor planning andmanagement, disregard for management authority, etc. The report recommended that the responsiblegovernment authority quickly take necessary action to increase staffing, obtain strongauthorization, includethe media, execute policies and regulations for conserving its biodiversity.
Key words: Biodiversity, conservation, simpsons’ index, eco-tourism, park

Growth and yield attributes of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.) AS influenced by spacing and nitrogen fertilizer

ABSTRACT

To observe the growth and yield attributes of cauliflower under different spacing and nitrogen fertilizers, a field experiment was conducted with cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.) variety “BARI Phulcopi-1 (Rupa)”. The experiment was carried out at the research field of the Department of Crop Science and Technology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi during the period from November, 2021 to February, 2022. The experiment consisted of three spacing i.e. 60cm X 50cm, 60cm X 60cm and 60cm X 70cm  as well as three levels of nitrogen fertilizers viz. 80kg/ha, 100kg/ha and 120 kg/ha. The results revealed that different treatments significantly affected the growth and yield attributes of cauliflower. The combination of 60cm X 70cm spacing with highest level of nitrogen fertilizer (120 kg/ha) produced the maximum plant height, leaf length, leaf breadth, curd diameter, curd height, curd weight/plant and yield whereas 60cm X 60cm and highest level of nitrogen fertilizer produced the highest no. of leaves/plant and days to curd initiation. On the other hand, all the studied parameters except days to curd initiation found to be lowest in the treatment combination of 60cm X 50cm spacing with lower level of nitrogen fertilizer (80 kg/ha).The study concluded that cauliflower need to be cultivated at 60cm X 70cm spacing and 120 kg/ha nitrogen fertilizer is to be applied for getting the targeted yield as well as desired return from cauliflower cultivation in “High Ganges River Floodplain zones” of Bangladesh.

Key words: Spacing, nitrogen fertilizer, growth and yield, cauliflower

Response of rice to nitrogen fertilizer scheduling in t. aman season

ABSTRACT

The experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh from July-November, 2019 to evaluate the response of rice to nitrogen fertilizer scheduling in T. aman field. The experiment comprised of three varieties viz. BRRI dhan34, BRRI dhan49 and Dhani Gold and five nitrogen treatments are no nitrogen (N0), 110 kg N/ha as USG (N1), 110 kg N/ha as Prilled Urea (1/3 at Basal + 1/3 at 30 DAT + 1/3 at 45 DAT) (N2), 110 kg N/ha as Prilled Urea (1/3 at 15 DAT + 1/3 at          30 DAT + 1/3 at 45 DAT) (N3) and 110 kg N/ha as Prilled Urea (1/4 at 15 DAT + 1/4 at 30 DAT + 1/4 at     45 DAT + 1/4 at 60 DAT) (N4). The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The highest result for plant height (146.0 cm) was found for BRRI dhan-34 with    110 kg N/ha as prilled urea (1/4 at 15 DAT + 1/4 at 30 DAT + 1/4 at 45 DAT + 1/4 at 60 DAT) (N4). The highest number of total tiller hill-1 (10.80), 1000 grain weight (24.11 g), grain yield (6.937 t ha-1), straw yield (7.513 t ha-1) and biological yield (14.45 t ha-1) were found in Dahani gold with 110 kg N/ha as prilled urea (1/4 at 15 DAT + 1/4 at 30 DAT + 1/4 at 45 DAT + 1/4 at 60 DAT) (N4). The highest harvest index (48.61%) was found for BRRI dhan-49 with 110 kg N/ha as prilled urea (1/3 at 15 DAT + 1/3 at 30 DAT + 1/3 at       45 DAT) (N3). The result indicated that hybrid variety Dhani gold yielded the highest, while fine rice variety BRRI dhan34 yielded the lowest.

Key words: Rice, prilled urea, grain yield, T. aman season