Impact of flood induced siltation on maize production: An empirical evidence in Gaibandha district of Bangladesh
The present study was designed to estimate the comparative profitability of silted and non-silted areas of maize production in Gaibandha district of Bangladesh. In total, 60 farmers were randomly selected from the villages of Gaibandha Sadar, Sundarganj, and Fulchori upazilas of Gaibandha district. Both tabular and statistical analyses were applied considering the objectives of the study. Data were collected from selected respondents through the direct interview method using a well-designed, pre-tested structured questionnaire. Gross margin analysis was used to measure farmer’s profitability. The study revealed that maize production was a profitable enterprise. Per hectare Gross return, gross margin, and net return were Tk. 318696, Tk. 220607.47, and Tk. 198772.66, respectively, for silted area, whereas, hectare wise gross return, gross margin, and net return for non-silted area were Tk. 265616, Tk. 159245, and Tk. 136585.38, respectively. The benefit cost ratios (BCR) were found to be 2.66 and 2.06 for silted and non-silted areas, respectively, which implies that one taka of investment in maize production generated Tk. 2.66 in silted areas and Tk. 2.06 in non-silted areas. Cobb-Douglas production function analysis indicated that out of seven variables, the effects of labor, cow dung, seed cost, and siltation had a positive and significant impact on the gross return from maize production. In spite of all the constraints, there was a great prospect for maize farming in the study area as a profitable enterprise.
Key words: Maize, Gross margin, BCR
Bangladesh has a great chance to maintain this amount of maize flow if maize farming, processing, and marketing are developed in a scientific manner. The optimum soil for growing maize is non-water-logging soil like sandy loam or loamy soil. Due to the growth of the livestock and poultry industries, maize demand has surged in Bangladesh in recent years. Maize is a highly productive and nutritious crop that is used as human food, poultry feed, and livestock fodder (Borase et al. 2018). It contains a lot of vitamin B and trace elements (Bojtor et al. 2022). Behind rice and wheat, it is the most important cereal crop for reducing food shortages, poultry feed, and malnutrition. Maize surpasses rice in terms of protein, carotene, and oil content. It should be noted that, despite the low protein quality of rice, Bangladesh uses rice to meet more than 80% of its protein needs. It is unquestionable that if rice is substantially substituted in the diet with maize, protein intake will rise. Because of its lower price and greater productivity than rice and wheat, maize is very popular. Therefore, it is crucial to place a strong emphasis on raising maize output. Today, due to global warming, there is flow loss and the formation of islands. Floods were more frequent in the riverine area. Flood-borne silt nourishes the soil with fertility. Floods and rising river waters inundate Bangladesh’s low-lying territory every year. Most of the charred areas are flooded every year and accumulate huge amounts of silt. Consequently, this silt makes these areas suitable for cultivating some specific crops. People have little opportunity to survive on those lands. Lands in these areas remain waterlogged from June to October almost every year. After that period, this land remains fallow, and nothing is grown with the exception of natural grasses. This soil is perhaps suitable for the production of maize. The recommendations made for the area will be equally applicable for the Char areas of Bangladesh as a whole. In this way, the livelihood of a large number of Char people could be improved. In this study, an attempt has been made to find out the profitability of maize production in Silted lands. Therefore, this study is facilitated to provide valuable information and may be useful for formulating appropriate policies