Amitav Ghosh’s Ecocritical canvas: a literary exploration of environmental consciousness

This paper delves into the realm of ecocriticism in the literary works of acclaimed Indian author Amitav Ghosh. Recognized for his ability to weave intricate narratives that intertwine history, culture, and the environment, Ghosh’s novels present a rich tapestry of human experiences set against the backdrop of ecological challenges.The paper explores how Ghosh employs ecocritical perspectives to articulate the intricate connections between humans and the environment, offering nuanced reflections on the impacts of globalization, climate change, and human activities on the natural world. By analyzing The Hungry Tide, the Ibis Trilogy and The Great Derangement, this paper aims to illuminate Ghosh’s contribution to the environmental discourse within the context of contemporary literature.

Key words: Ecocriticism, environment, literature

Prof. Sattar recognized with Sher-e-Bangla golden award in education

Prof. Dr. M.A. Sattar, College of Agricultural Sciences (CAS), International University of Business Agriculture and Technology (IUBAT), Uttara, Dhaka received the Sher-e-Bangla Golden Award in Education on May 26, 2023 at Dhaka that was awarded by Sher-E-Bangla A.K. Fazlul Hoque Research Council, Dhaka. His brief academic career is outlined here covering 50 years of teaching services at four universities in Bangladesh.

Prof. Dr. M.A. Sattar is a renowned International agriculture, soil, pesticide and environmental scientist; researcher, inventor, educator, poet, writer, journalist and philosopher served 42 years at BAU, Mymensingh as Head, Dean-Agriculture and Syndicate Member and 5 years at BSMRSTU, Gopalganj as Chairman, Dean-Life Science and Regent Board Member where actively contributed to more than 50 major univ. committee as chairman, president and/or member, 7 months at Fareast Inter. Univ., Dhaka and from January 2023 to IUBAT, Dhaka.

His academic degrees covered BScAg (Hons), MSc(Ag), LicPhil, DPhil, DSc., ScD and Postdoc, i.e. have 4-PhD equiv. degrees as first Bangladeshi scientist; handled wide research in Finland (JKL University, 1976-84); Visha Bharati University, India; Punjab University, Pak.; Kiel University and Duisburg University, Germany; has more  than 2,000 publications like International Journal-40, National Journal-250, Conference proced.-50, conf. Abstr.-190, newspaper-650 (1989-92), books-245, Bangabandhu’s live and philosophy-5, Text books-20, supervision of PhD-15, MSc(Ag)/MS-125, Models-250, awareness slogan-500; if book-chapters are separated then comes/covers 10,000 more articles/chapter from 245 books; presented articles 100+ confs., member-25 sci. soc., visited 80 cities of 30 countries, organized 6-national environ. confs., delivered 65-environ. awareness lectures as chief/special guests, received 30 national/International awards like as Bangladesh Academy of Science Gold Medal in 1988 (1st Agriculturist & environment scientist), and Gold Medal for Bangladesh etc.; developed first Environ. Science Society in Bangladesh in 1992 and also developed first Environ. Journal (Bangladesh Journal of Environmental Science) in 1994 (published 43 vols) as Editor-in-Chief.

He has lot of field and lab research on basic, applied, fundamental and survey contributions of 75-80 major patent/areas on agriculture, soil science, environment science, pesticide science, climate changes, biodiversity, food safety and security, population dynamics, rural and urban environments, arsenic and 12-22 heavy metals (50 publications); improved, developed and established analysis methods of MCPA, MCPA+ metabolites phenoxyherbicides, organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides, chlorinated catechol, cresol and phenol; invented 2-hazardous metabolites of MCPA; residues of pesticides. Books and newspaper articles covered 18-25 areas. He is pioneer on Education and Research in Bangladesh in Environmental science (1972-2023); Pesticide science (1976-2023); Soil pollution (1972-2023); Arsenic and heavy metals in soils and crops (1996-2023); Food safety guideline against pesticides (1976-2023) and Heavy metals (1996-2023) and schematic models in science (1976-2023), literature (1976-2023), and Bangabandhu’s Life (2015-2023). His wife (Rtd.) Prof. Dr. Afroza BA(Hons), M.A., LicPhil, PhD, Postdoc. pioneer on Disaster Management Education and Research in Bangladesh (1976-1984, Helsinki Univ., Finland). First woman Principal at Bangladesh Cadet College Services; son Dr. Sanyat Sattar BA (Hons), MA, PhD, Postdoc., Prof., JU, and daughter Dr. Klaara, MBBS, FCPS, BCS Consultant, Physician, Govt. of Bangladesh.

Population dynamics of the jew fish, Johnius coitor (hamilton- buchanan, 1822) from the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh

ABSTRACT

A study on the population dynamics of the Jew fish, Johnius coitor (Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822) from the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh was conducted using FISAT-II program, with the length-frequency data of 1178 fish samples. The growth parameters like asymptotic length (Lα) and growth co-efficient (K) were calculated to be 29 cm and 1.1year-1, respectively. The rate of natural mortality (M), fishing mortality (F) and total mortality (Z) were found to be 1.1, 1.84 and 2.94, respectively. The recruitment pattern of the studied fish has shown the species recruited with one peak during April to July. The probability of capture at L25, L50, L75 were observed to be 13.6, 15.8 and 16.96 cm, respectively. The relative yield per recruit (Y΄/R) and biomass per recruit (Β΄/ R) were found to be 0.544 and 1.0, respectively. The exploitation (E) rate was observed to be 0.63, which indicated the fish was over fished (E> 0.50) in the Bay of Bengal. But the maximum exploitation (Emax) value was 0.731 which was greater than current E (0.63) value. The growth performance index (φ΄) of J. coitor in the Bay of Bengal was moderate (2.97). Emphasize should be given on proper and requisite recruitment to overcome the overfishing and to generate maximum yield per-recruit.

Key words: Jew fish, Johnius coitor, population dynamics, length-frequency data, Bay of Bengal

Introduction

Study of population dynamics of any fish species is very important to develop scientific strategies for their protection, management, conservation and also to get a sustainable yield. Fish population dynamics is the fluctuation in number of fish in a population due to several factors such as reproduction, growth, mortality and recruitment (King, 2007) for which a given population grows or shrinks. Study of different population parameters including the asymptotic length and growth co-efficient, mortality (natural and fishing) rate and exploitation level are essential for planning and management of marine resources (Baset et al., 2020). Lack of knowledge of population structure and exploitation of marine resources demand a detailed study to facilitate better management. The fresh water capture fisheries of Bangladesh are now decreasing day by day due to various natural and manmade causes; thus, it cannot meet the increasing demand. Hence, exploration, exploitation and culture of marine water resources will be the only solution for the existing problem. For this purpose, a comprehensive knowledge about the ecology, biology and population size of marine fishes are very important. Johnius coitor (Family Sciaenidae, a croaker), locally known as “Poa Mach” is one of the most dominant and commercially important Jew fishes in the Bay of Bengal. J. coitor is also captured from the river, estuaries and Kaptai lake (Azadi et al., 1999). The fish is widely distributed in different parts of the world. About 20 species of Jew fish (Poa, Lambu, Kala-datina etc.) are found in the Bay of Bengal, out of which seven species play a vital role in the national economy of Bangladesh. Jew fish comprise almost 12.8% of the total demersal fish stock in the EEZ of Bangladesh, 66.5% of the demersal fishes found in the continental shelf are within 20-meter depth of water (Sarker and Rahman, 1991). Almost one thousand tons of dehydrated and salted Jew fishes are exported annually to the South-East Asian countries (Sarker and Rahman, 1991). Review of literature revealed that except some short works on morphometry (Azadi et al., 1999), reproductive parameters (Sarkar et al., 2018) of Johnius coitor from the Karnaphuli river, Bangladesh and Ganga River, India, respectively no work on length-frequency based and other population analysis of this fish has been done, however, some works on other species of Johnius like J. dussumieri (Chakraborty et al.,1997, Baset et al., 2020) have been done from Indian waters and Pakistani waters. Faizah and Anggawangsa (2019) worked on J. carouna from Indonesian water, Bhuyan et al.

Pheromone uses for insect pest management in vegetables: present scenario and future prospect

ABSTRACT

Using pesticide is detrimental to human health and environment but even knowing this farmer of Bangladesh, which is really a subject to concern. Using pheromone instead of pesticide is one kind of environmentally friendly solution having no residual effects. Hence, this study is organized with different statistical data on the basis of conducting different survey and experiment on using pheromone. Using pheromone is highly cost effective than other conventional agricultural practice. Yield of vegetable crops higher in case of pheromone use than conventional practice and BCR (Benefit Cost Ratio) is also higher in case of pheromone using field than conventional agriculture. The aim of the study is to sort out the problems and make solutions regarding popularize of pheromone to the farmers.

Key words: Pheromone, pest control, IPM

Introduction

Pest infestation is one of the constraints for achieving higher production in agricultural sector. Bangladesh losses about 30% of its crops due to pest and diseases every year (BBS, 2007). The major problem of vegetable production is insect pest infestation which causes a huge loss in vegetables production.  Using of pesticides is so much helpful for minimizing the infestation. Pesticide use in Bangladesh negligible until the 1970s, but now it is increasing in dramatic way (Rahman, 2003). Pesticides should use by following the instruction of expert personnel. But farmers use pesticides indiscriminately and in unscientific way that’s why insect pest developing resistance and minor pests become major pests and causing food safety hazards (EPA, 2005). That’s why we need alternative way to control pests. Pheromone is one kind of biological insect control methods having no residual impacts on human health and environment. According to Islam (2012), “The use of synthetic pheromones for environmentally safe insect control was postulated soon after the discovery of silk moth pheromone.” Pheromones are used as monitoring tools (Ridgway et al., 1990; Baker and Heath, 2004). Due to the safe and secure insect pest control many agrochemical industries are now suggesting to the farmers to develop mating disruption and mass trapping of rice stem borer in order to use pesticide (Cork et al., 2005b). “Pheromones are applied in slow release formulations, thus resulting in low exposure; residues of lepidopteran pheromones in pheromone- treated food crops have not been detected (Tinworth, 1990)”. Using of bait trapping for fruit fly control with a synthetic pheromone recoved53 to 73% yield lossessin cucurbits (IPM CRSP, 2003). According to Rakshit et al. (2011), because of the effectiveness in controlling fruit fly and higher economic returns approximately 90% of the farmers of Jashore district adopted cuelure pheromone traps. There is very few research works have conducted on pheromone in insect pest management. Only a few scientists worked on pheromone traps (Alam et al., 2005; Uddin, 2008; Mazumder and Khalequzzaman, 2010) in Bangladesh but still now nobody identify the pheromone from native insect. According to Islam (2012), the survey report on pheromone practice in Bangladesh agriculture is also limited and it’s conducted by Md. Azharul Islam in 2012. The objectives of this study are as follows: (i) to discuss the present scenario and future prospect of using pheromone trap in Bangladesh and (ii) to identify the problems facing by the farmers and solve the problems.

Management of tip burn of garlic

ABSTRACT

The experiment was conducted at Agriculture Research Station, BARI, Bogura during 2019-20 and 2020-21 regarding management of tip burn, a leaf blight disease of garlic. Tip burn is a common phenomenon in garlic plants. The study comprised 10 treatments i.e., T1= Five irrigation at an interval of 15 days starting after emergence, T2= Soil amendment with ash 2.0 tha-1, T3= Soil amendment with boron @ 2 kgha-1, T4= Five times foliar spraying with boric acid @ 3 gL-1 at an interval of 15 days starting after emergence at 3-4 leaf stage, T5= Soil amendment with Zn @ 3 kgha-1, T6= Foliar spray of Potassium sulphate (K2SO4) @ 5 gL-1 twice at fortnightly interval at 3-4 leaf stage, T7= Foliar spray of Calcium sulphate (CaSO4) @ 5 gL-1 twice at fortnightly interval at 3-4 leaf stage, T8= Amister top @ 1 mlL-1 of water, T9= Nutraphos-N 3 times foliar spraying @ 4 gL-1 at an interval of 15 days starting at 3-4 leaf stage and T10 = Control were employed in the experiment. The tip burn incidence varied with the different management approaches ranging from 75.32 -90.54% in 2019-20 and 85.15-97.38% in 2020-21 cropping season. The application of ash, soil amendment with Zn, timely irrigation schedule, application of K2SO4 and CaSO4, spraying with fungicide like Amister top and Nutraphos-N3 were seemingly helpful for slightly reduction in burning of the tips of garlic plants as compared to no spray (control) condition. However, the highest tip burn incidence was obtained from T10 (Control) treatment and the lowest incidence was obtained from T8 (Amistar Top @ 1 mlL-1 of water) and T9 (Nutraphos-N 3 times foliar spraying @ 4 gL-1). Boron application either in soil or by spray as Solubor has no effect on reducing burning incidence. More burning resulted in reduction of bulb yield of garlic and vice versa. Yield varied from 7.77-10.42 t/ha in 2019-20 and from 6.72-7.53 t/ha in 2020-21. The highest yield was recorded in T9 and T8 which are statistically identical to the yield secured from other treatments except T10 (control). Higher bulb yield contributed to the higher gross return and gross margin. Maximum gross return and gross margin was recorded from T9 treatment followed by T8 and the minimum from T10 treatment.

Key words: Tip burn, Nutrient management, garlic.

Introduction

Garlic (Allium sativum L) is one of the most important bulb crops commercially grown in all parts of the country. It is an indispensable component in our daily life, mostly in the kitchen. It has medicinal value also. The total production area was 60776 ha and the total production was 381851 metric tons with an average yield of 6.28 metric tons per hectare in Bangladesh (BBS, 2018). The average yield of garlic in our country is very low compared to other garlic growing countries in the world. This is due to various disease-insect especially tip burn (physiological disorder) and lack of developed production technology (Bisht et al., 1993, Dordas, 2009  and  Mishra et al., 2009). But very little effort was given for the management of tip burn in Bangladesh. Researchers of different parts of the world reported that water shortage, potassium scarcity and micronutrient limitation may cause tip burn in garlic (Dordas, 2009 and Mishra et al., 2009). It may also cause by primary or secondary infection of fungus (Oboron et al., 2003). Considering the above fact, the present study was undertaken to find out the effective control measures of tip burn for increasing the garlic production of Bangladesh.

Response of minerals accumulation in cucumber and yard long bean in respect of soil salinity

ABSTRACT
A study was conducted to produce saline tolerant vegetables with their mineral constituents for nutritional security during July 2020 to June 2021. Edible portions of cucumber and yard long bean were collected from each of the three locations of Borguna and Patuakhali districts. Soils of each location were collected to detect pH and EC values. Sawdagarpara, Taltoli, Borguna district and Pakhimara, Khepupara, Patuakhali districtwere selected as saline area and Dumki, Patuakhali was remarked as non-saline area on the basis of soil salinity. It is noted that the soils of Borguna generally contains high saline in dry season; but during the sampling period the soil at Sawdagarpara observed moderately saline (EC value 6.2 dS m-1). The vegetable
were also analyzed to detect P, K, Ca, Mg and S contents. In saline area cooperatively lower accumulation of P and higher accumulations of K, Ca, Mg and S were found in the vegetable than that of non-saline area. This year the soil salinity did not raise as high levels as the other years and this might be due to the higher rainfall. Therefore, the discussed vegetable could be grown in saline area for sufficient mineral compositions. Considering the achieved findings the studied vegetables can tolerate moderate salinity (soil EC up to 6.2dSm-1) and they can be recommended to grow commercially in the study area for nutritional security. The
trend of minerals accumulation in the vegetable was Ca>Mg>P>K>S. On the basis of total minerals content the trend of vegetable was found as Cucumber> yard long bean.
Key words: Salinity, vegetable crops, nutritional security, coastal region

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