Effect of boron and aluminium on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat

ABSTRACT

A Petri dish and hydroponic culture experiment was conducted at Plant Physiology Laboratory, Department
of Crop Botany, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during the period from November 2017 to
April 2018 to investigate the effect of boron and aluminium and their interactions on seed germination and
seedling growth on wheat seedlings. The experiment comprised of two levels of B (0, 40 µM) and Al (0,
200 µM). The treatments combination were 0 µM B + 0 µM Al (control), 0 µM Al + 40 µM B, 200 µM Al +
40 µM B and 0 µM B + 200 µM Al and five wheat varieties viz; BARI GOM 23, BARI GOM 24, BARI
GOM 28, BARI GOM 27 and BARI GOM 30. The experiment was laid out in two factors Completely
Randomized Design with three replications. Application of 0 µM Al + 40 µM B had a higher radicle and
plumule length, germination percentages, root length, shoot length, leaf length, leaf sheath length, and fresh
and dry mass production in wheat. Results indicated that germination percentage, radicle and plumule length,
root and shoot length, leaf length, leaf sheath length, fresh and dry mass plant-1 were greater in boron
treatment but without aluminium. Application of 0 µM B + 200 µM Al resulted germination percentage,
radicle and plumule length, root and shoot length, leaf length, leaf sheath length, fresh and dry mass plant-1
were lowest in compare to other treatment. However, Aluminium had profound negative effect on
germination percentage, growth and developments of wheat seedlings but boron can ameliorate the
aluminium toxicity in every stage of growth and developments of wheat seedlings. Among the varieties,
BARI GOM 28 had highest tolerance to aluminium toxicity and positive boron response in respect of growth
and development.
Key words: Boron, aluminium, seed germination, seedling growth.
Introduction
The wheat crop is mainly cultivated under rain fed conditions where precipitation is less than 900 mm
annually. Wheat is grown both as spring and winter crop. It is widely grown throughout the temperate
zones (in Northern Europe up to 60° N) and in some tropical/sub-tropical areas at higher elevations. The
major centers are: Europe (131 million t grain, 27 million ha), the former USSR (108 million t grain, 48
million ha), North America (106 million t grain, 42 million ha), China (96 million t grain, 30 million ha)
and India (50 million t grain, 23 million ha). Aluminium stress associated with low soil pH affected soils
and there are more than one million ha of land with low pH in Bangladesh. On world-wide basis there are
nearly 2.6 billion ha of strongly acid soils with Al3+ toxicity (Dudal, 1976). Acid soil, by increasing Al3+
solubility increases its concentration at the rhizosphere. Al3+ toxicity inhibits plant growth by interfering
with the regulatory process of root growth and development (Foy and Taylor, 1998). To overcome the
situation Al3+ tolerant wheat germplasm may be helpful for the expansion of its cultivation in the areas of
acid soil. In Bangladesh, the tolerance grade of the existing gene pool of wheat against Al3+ toxicity is yet
to be determined .Thus, the present work was undertaken to determine the tolerance efficiency of some
high yielding varieties of wheat against different levels of Al3+ stress with respect to seed germination, root
and shoot growth, and dry matter yield at seedling stage. Boron (B) is an essential element for plant growth.
Boron has been referred to as one of the apoplastic elements mainly because it is localized in cell walls.
However, the real function of B in plant nutrition has not been completely elucidated. Wheat cultivars
differ markedly in their sensitivity to B deficiency Boron efficient cultivars of wheat displayed greater
ability to absorb B than B-inefficient cultivars when grown under a similar B supply (Subedi et al. 1999).

Assessment of phenotypic variation among kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) genotypes by morpho-agronomic traits

ABSTRACT

Thirty-seven kenaf (Hibiscus canabinus L.) genotypes (34 accessions and 3 variety) originated in different
parts of the world were studied in BJRI to assess genetic variation using morpho-agronomic traits. A total of
20 morpho-agronomic traits was selected for study and found that the genotypes varied significantly (p<0.01)
in these traits. The major production traits such as stick weight and fiber weights were found highly
correlated with other traits. Considerable ranges of variability were observed in stem colour, petiole colour,
stipule colour, plant technical height, base diameter, dry fiber weight and dry stick weight. Based on major
yield contributing characters accession 3569, 5027, 2048, and 5029 were better than other genotypes.
Key words: Kenaf genotypes, morpho-agronomic trait, genetic diversity, kenaf breeding program.
Introduction
Kenaf (Hibiscus canabinus L.) is a traditional fiber producing plant belonging to the family Malvaceae. In
the present global environmental needs and inadequate green fiber resources, kenaf is a potential crop with
higher tensile strength fiber (Faruq et al., 2013) and because of lower production cost and labor
requirements it is now replacing jute plants traditionally used for fiber production (Golam et al., 2011). To
date, kenaf has been utilized for manufacturing various industrial products such as pulping and paper
making. Good quality kenaf fiber can be utilized for producing industrial filter and the core can be utilized
as a bio-remediation agent, animal bedding, and low-density particle board (Baldwin and Graham, 2006).
In order to expand its industrial use and maintain the economic viability, it is important to study the genetic
diversity of different kenaf genotypes for developing an effective breeding program that will yield high
fiber or stick (Bitzer et al., 2000). The widespread method to define the variability of kenaf is the study of
morpho-agronomic traits. Raw morphological properties play important roles to classify kenaf varieties.
However, defining the kenaf genotype by common traits such as plant height, leaf shape and maturity etc.
are sometimes difficult. For instance, morphological traits cannot be utilized in early selection of potential
kenaf genotypes. In addition, genetic variability detection using morphological traits is not worthy when
the target gene expression changes with environmental condition and plant development stages (Kalpana et
al., 2012). It is also important to define the circulating seeds in the market to secure farmer’s interest from
potential fraudulent admixtures (Cheng et al., 2002). Traditional genetic variation analysis was on
morphological and agronomical traits and due to the difficulty to identify cultivars based entirely on these
traits effective recently molecular technologies are introduced (Islam et al., 2014). For characterization of
genetic variation in plants certain molecular DNA based markers, such as RAPD, RFLP, AFLP and SSR
(Faruq et al. 2013) can be applied (Islam et al., 2014). At present a large number of germplasm are now
being maintained in the Gene Bank of Bangladesh Jute Research Institute (BJRI). There are 675
germplasms of kenaf of both indigenous and exotic sources in the Gene Bank of BJRI. The use of plant
genetic resources in breeding research is largely dependent on the available information of their genetic
variability. In this study thirty one accessions of kenaf germplasm received from different sources. This
study was, therefore, conducted to determine the genetic diversity in different kenaf genotypes of diverse
origin in tropical and sub-tropical environment of the World using morphological traits.

Effect of fertilizer and irrigation on the yield and yield contributing characters of pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.)

ABSTRACT

Aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of fertilizer and irrigation on the yield and yield contributing characters of pointed gourd var. “BARI Patal-1”. Different treatments showed significant performances, where the observations revealed that the combination of highest levels of fertilizers (application of Urea and MP both @ 35 g/pit) and irrigation (4 times) confirmed the minimum days to first flower initiation and first harvest. The above combination also ensured the best performances of pointed gourd in respect of nodes per plant, vine length, fruit length and breadth, individual fruit weight, number of fruits per plant, number of seeds per fruit, weight of fruits as well as fruit yield. Always control treatment showed the worst performance. Finally the findings concluded that the yield of pointed gourd increases in an increased rate of fertilizer and irrigation upto a certain level.
Key words: Fertilizer, irrigation, yield, pointed gourd.

Introduction
Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) is commonly known as patol and is widely cultivated as summer vegetables in Bangladesh, Assam, West Bangal, Bihar, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh of India. In Bangladesh it is vastly cultivated in the districts of Rajshahi, Pabna, Bogra, Kustia and Jessore, (Rashid, 1993). The pointed gourd is produced in about 24,364 acres of land of Bangladesh with a total production of 85374 M tons having the average yield of 1.4 t/ha (BBS, 2018-19). It is a very important and nutritious
due to containing of 5.4 g protein, 0.5 g mineral, 153 mg carotene and 29 mg vitamin-C per 100 g fresh
weight (Gopalan et al., 1982). It is easily digestible, diuretic, and laxative, invigorates the heart and brain
and is useful in the disorder of the circulatory system (Malek, 2009). Pointed gourd is a perennial and
dioecious vegetable that grows as vine with a pencil thickness stem (Hazra et al., 2011). Traditionally it is
multiplied through stem cuttings and root suckers (Pandey and Ram, 2000) but possesses the lower yield
due to lack of knowledge about the package of practices particularly planting density and proper nutrient
management.
Fertilizer is one of the most important inputs contributing to crop production because it increases
productivity and improves yield and quality (Sanap et al., 2010). Fertilizer also helps to attain aesthetic
value of crops (Siva et al., 2018). Nitrogen fertilization favors the development of the aerial parts over
roots and consequently the promotion of flowering and fruiting of many crops. Pointed gourd has huge
vegetative growth which needs high amount of nitrogen (Hazra et al., 2011). Potassium is an important
element in plant metabolism, promoting carbohydrate translocation from tops to roots. It plays a major role
in the production of fruits. Hence, it is necessary for enhancing the fruit yield and yield attributes. So far,
no work has been done on effect of N, P, K levels on the yield and quality parameters of pointed gourd in
the High Ganges River Floodplain of Bangladesh. On the other hand, water is a very important element for
crop production. Irrigation fulfills the water requirement of plants. Irrigation induce flowering in plants. It
had been claimed that water stress kept flower buds dormant (Mes, 1957). If the surface soil dried, a
decrease in plant yield may be caused by mineral deficiency while the roots were extracting enough water
from the lower soil layers to maintain turgor (Hagan et al. 1957). He also added that repeated irrigation was
necessary in the dry season for higher yield. Dutta (1979) stated that absorption of water helped the intake

Noise level impacts on human health in health care units of Bogra town, Bangladesh

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted at the ten govt. as well as private health care units (HCU) in Bogra town of
Bangladesh to find out the impacts of noise levels associated with health effects during the period from
October 2017 to March 2018. Multi-Function Environmental Meter was used for measuring noise levels in
the selected health care units. From the study the highest and lowest noise level were found in 2017 at
Shahid Ziaur Rahman Medical College Hospital (107.7±4.37 dB) during the month of October and
Annesha Clinic (60.3±1.81 dB) during the month of October, respectively. On the contrary, the highest and
lowest noise levels in 2018 were found at Shahid Ziaur Rahman Medical College Hospital (109.7±4.7 dB)
during the month of February and Modern Dental Care (59.5±1.11 dB) during the month of March,
respectively. However, all of the recorded noise levels were exceeded the acceptable limit of 45 dB set by the
DoE for day time in case of silent area. Concurrently a survey study was conducted with doctors, students,
nurse/staff and patients. Most of the common problems occurred from noise pollution were identified as
conversation, headache and hearing problems. To resolve the problem maximum respondents emphasized on
awareness of visitors, banning of hydraulic horn, making sound barriers, and controlling visitors. However,
the role of NGOs, researchers and professionals, media and concerned individuals is significant in
minimizing the environmental hazards of noise pollution.
Key words: Noise level, health care, human health, Bogra town.
Introduction
Noise pollution exists in hospitals all over the world, is a common stressor and is recognized as not just as a
nuisance but a serious health hazard. Various studies have measured hospital noise and linked to negative
patients’ quality care (Juang et al., 2010; Pope, 2010; Moshi et al., 2011). Evidence has also been
accumulated that noise is a risk factor in sleep disturbance (Gabor et al., 2003; Xie et al., 2009),
cardiovascular dysfunction, speech interference and mental health distortion, including hearing impairment
and balance disorder (Satterfield, 2001; Ising and Kruppa, 2004). The effect may not only affect the
patient’s wellbeing and comfort, but may also cause stress for the staff, decreasing work performance and
increasing anxiety. The source of noise pollution include doors slamming, trolleys rolling in corridors,
alarms and moving parts of medical equipment are all important as are the frequently loud conversations
among, staff members or visitors in hospitals (Safarpour et al., 2010). Evidence has also been showed that
exposure of noise is increasing at an alarming rate at health care centers both Rajshahi city (Sultana, 2014)
and Mymensingh city (Islam 2016). More importantly, general hospitals and clinics are located along the
roadsides and around the busy places of the city and town. Beside the increasing degree of air and water
pollution, noise pollution is also emerging as a new threat to the inhabitants of Bogra town. Due to rapid
urbanization, the level of noise pollution is increasing at major health care units in Bogra town. Little
studies were conducted with industrial activities, construction activities, highly traffic congestion,
indiscriminate use of loud speakers, and mismanagement of the health staffs and their lack of awareness in
Bogra town. At this point, in the existing study, noise levels at various places of indoor, outdoor and other
important departments at the selected hospitals and clinics of Bogra town area were measured and
compared with the DoE and WHO regulation to reach the following objectives: to investigate the level of
noise pollution and to assess the health effects of noise pollution for ensuring sound and peaceful
environment in health care units of Bogra town.

Performance of BARI released pointed gourd varieties (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb) in barind tract of Bangladesh

ABSTRACT

A field trial was conducted at the Multi location Testing (MLT) site, Joypurhat during Rabi, 2015-16 to
evaluate the performance of pointed gourd varieties under farmer’s field condition in Barind tract of
Bangladesh. Three pointed gourd varieties viz. BARI Potol-1, BARI Potol-2 and Local (check) variety were
evaluated in the study. The highest pointed gourd fruit yield (27.5 tha-1), gross returns (TK. 551600 ha-1)
were found from BARI Potol-1 which was statistically differed to other varieties. The lowest pointed gourd
fruit yield (21.59 tha-1), gross return (TK. 431800 ha-1)) were obtained from local/cultivated variety. Result
revealed that, the shape of fruit BARI Potol-1 was also differed from the other varieties. So, the cultivation of
BARI Potol-1 can be expanded to meet the vegetables demand in barind tract of Bangladesh.
Key words: BARI released variety, pointed gourd, fruit yield

Introduction
Vegetables compared to other foods offer a cheap food source. It can even be produced a small amount of
land and also in a residential area. It can be grown within a short period and more than one crop can be
grown within a harvest season. There are a large number of vegetables with different varieties that can be
grown throughout the year. However, the largest number of vegetables is grown in the winter season.
Vegetables are generally labor-intensive crops and therefore offer a significant promise to generate more
employment in rural areas. Bangladesh’s climate and soil is very suitable for growing vegetables all year
round (Akter et al., 2011). Nearly 100 different types of vegetables, including both local and foreign
origins, are grown in Bangladesh. Vegetables are important for nutrition, economy and food security.
Vegetables can be considered an important for this economy because of the remarkable contribution to
increasing the income from foreign currencies and occupies an important position among the products
exported from Bangladesh. Vegetables contribute 3.2% of the gross domestic product of agriculture (BBS,
2009). Bangladesh earned US $ 41.11 from agricultural exports, which contributed 0.54% to total export
earnings (BER, 2008). But still we are in shortage to cultivate vegetables in summer period of Bangladesh.
Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb) under the family of Cucurbitaceae is being cultivated in
summer season as one of the most nutritive vegetables in Bangladesh. It is grown around 10006.5 ha with
total production of 84096 metric tons and national average yield is 8.40 t/ha during 2014-15 (Anon., 2016).
It is morphologically exception from the other cucurbitaceous species due to its well established
dioeciously vegetative means of propagation (Awal et al., 2005). It is a good source of vitamins and
minerals. It contains 92.4% water, 0.5% minerals, 3.0% frbre, 2.4% protein, 0.6% fat and 4.1%
carbohydrate per 100g edible portion. It has also high industrial value as different types of jam, jelly and
pickles can be made from this vegetable. It has also a good medicinal value. It is easily digestible, diuretic
and laxative invigorates the heart and brain and is useful in disorder of the circulatory system (Malek,
2009). It was reported that pointed gourd possesses the medicinal property of lowering the total cholesterol
and blood sugar (Sharma et al., 1988). However, in Bangladesh the average yield of pointed gourd in
Bangladesh is low compared to other countries of the world. This low yield may be due to the cultivation of
the low yielding local varieties, incidence of diseases and insects, lack of technical knowledge etc.
Recently, BARI has developed two high yielding varieties, BARI Potol-1, BARI Potol-2 and one hybrid

Performance of kangkong and sweet gourd in association with four years old lohakat tree (Xylia dolabriformis)

ABSTRACT

A field experiment was conducted at the Banglabazar field area near Pabna town during the period from
05 February 2016 to 25 May 2016 to observe the performance (growth and yield) of kangkong and sweet
gourd grown at different distances from the lohakat tree (Xylia sp.). Different treatments of the experiment
were T1 (3 feet distance from tree), T2 (6 feet distance from tree) and T3 (9 feet distance from tree) T4 (open
field referred as control). The experiment was laid out in RCBD for all six crops with 3 replications. In case
of sweet gourd, it was found that open field produced highest yields (40.30 t ha -1) which were statistically
similar to treatment T3. In case of kangkong, it was also found that treatment T3 (9 feet distance from tree)
produced highest yields (39.20 t ha -1
) which were statistically similar to treatment T4 (open field referred as
control). In case of sweet gourd and kangkong, the lowest yield was found in T1(3 feet distance from the
tree). The growth characters of lohakat tree (Xylia dolabriformis) tree are not satisfactory in association with
kangkong and sweet gourd at 9 feet distance from lohakat tree (Xylia dolabriformis) tree.
Key words: Performance, kangkong, vegetables, agroforestry.
Introduction
In Bangladesh, a large number of vegetable are grown throughout the year including summer season. About
30 per cent of vegetable are produced in summer and rainy seasons. The average consumption of vegetable
in Bangladesh is only 70 g per head per day including potato and sweet potato. To supply the minimum
daily requirement of 200g vegetable head day-1, national production of vegetable should be over 10 million
ton in addition. The effective area of forest in Bangladesh is neither in a position to fulfill the requirements
of the people’s fuel and timber nor to stabilize the climatic condition. So, conflict for land use between
agriculture and forestry are prevalent in Bangladesh. Under these circumstances it is necessary to find out a
suitable alternative to overcome this situation. Recently, some techniques have already been advocated to
overcome future food challenges, vegetable agroforestry is one of them. The integration of tree and crop or
vegetable on the same area of land is a promising production system for maximizing yield and maintaining
friendly environment (Nair, 1990). In Bangladesh; different crops are cultivated in summer season. Among
the different summer vegetables okra and bottle gourd are the important summer vegetables in Bangladesh.
These are well known and very popular vegetables grown successfully during summer season in
Bangladesh. For identifying the compatible tree-crop combination, particularly under storey species i.e.
different crops should be screened out in terms of their adaptability and yield in association with the early
stage of tree. Therefore, it would be wise to conduct experiments under different tree crop or vegetable
combination at different spacing for screening of different crops in terms of their growth and yield
performance. The specific objectives of the study were to observe the performance of kangkong and sweet
gourd in association with lohakat tree tree and to observe their interaction.
Materials and Methods
The study was made to evaluate the performance of vegetables in association with four years old lohakat
tree. The soil of the experimental area was a medium high land. The texture of the soil was silty loam
having pH 6.7 (Amir and Bhuiya, 1994). The topography of the field was medium high land above flood.