ABSTRACT
A research experiment was conducted at Genetics Farm, Department of Biotechnology and Genetic
Engineering, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka during the period from October of 2017 to May of
2018 to show the combine effect of genotypes and environmental factors on yield and yield attributes of stem
amaranth. The experiment was laid out in the Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications.
Three different successive sowing dates viz. November 05, 2017; 15 January, 2018 and 25 March, 2018 were
used as three separate environment factors and 20 amaranth genotypes collected from Bangladesh
Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) were used as experimental materials. Among the twenty genotypes,
G-18 was produced the highest plant height (non-significant S2di value-10.53), higher number of seed per
plant (significant S2di value-11773806.62**) and yield (161.480) whereas G-09 was showed the worst
performances. But G-01 and G-03 were produced the thickest stem diameter (non-significant S2di value-1.63)
and earliest first flowering (non-significant S2di value -8.71), respectively. On the other hand, in case of
environments, sowing dates-II (15 January, 2018) & III (25 March, 2018) was considered as good
environment for the production of plants with higher plant height, individual stem diameter and yield,
whereas sowing date-I (05 November, 2017) was better for the production of plants with early first flowering
and having more number of seed per plant. Based on stable responses considering, G-18 genotype and
sowing date-II & III were the best in respect of yield of stem amaranth, and also it could be selected for
effective use in breeding program.
Key words: Amaranthus, genotyope, environment, interaction, yield attributes
Introduction
The stem amaranth is a cross pollinated vegetable having chromosome number 2n=32 or 34
(Muthukrishnan and Irulappan, 1986). It is an erect, annual and fibrous shrub. Stem amaranth leaves are
rich and inexpensive source of dietary fibre, protein, vitamins and a wide range of minerals (Shukla et al.,
2006). The last year of stem amaranth production of Bangladesh is 25485 acres with production of 67358
tons having yield of 4.5 t ha-1 only (BBS, 2012), which is very low. The yield of stem amaranth is become
low day by day because of the use of low yielding varieties and inefficient method of culture and
environmental factors. Though it is a very common crop in Bangladesh during summer season, very limited
attempt had been made for genetic improvement of this crop. An understanding of the nature and
magnitude of variability among the genetic stocks is the prime importance to the breeder. Varietal
adaptability to environmental fluctuations is important for the stabilization of crop production both over
regions and years. Genotype and environmental adaptability is the ability of a genotype to exhibit relatively
stable performance in different environments. It is important to understand how the proportion of genetic
component and genetic advance are affected by environments (Hamdi et al., 1991). Stable genotypes are
required to secure sustainable crop production (Brammer, 1971). The development of new cultivars
involves breeding of cultivars with desired characteristics such as high economic yield, tolerance or
resistance to biotic and a biotic stresses, traits that add value to the product, and the stability of these traits
in target environments. Inconsistent genotypic responses to environmental factors such as temperature, soil