ABSTRACT

This study aims to identify the influencing elements and adaption techniques of slum residents who moves due to climate change. From two slum areas in Rangpur district, a data base of 120 respondents was gathered using structured questionnaires in order to learn about the people’s adaptation and migration processes as well as their current way of life. Most of the respondents (43.32%) only completed their primary education, and 54.15 percent of them have weekly incomes of less than 1000 taka. Nearly 77% of people live in tin shacks. Due to river bank erosion, several respondents abandoned their village. Nearly 19% of them were from Mymensingh. Farmers made up about 45% of the respondents. However, as a result of losing their lands, more people, or around 63%, now work as a daily laborer. After migration they were forced to engage themselves in unskilled jobs like day laborer and rickshaw puller. Because of their educational status they couldn’t afford themselves into better housing status but also they engaged their children to work to meet their daily need which was costlier than their native place. Due to this dilemma a larger number of the respondents’ second generation were involved in an unskilled job also. This study is the baseline of the climate migrants’ status because there’s no research has been done regarding this issue in the north western region of Bangladesh. Since the city is developing recently so the city planner and policy makers should consider these people to involve them in skilled job so the society can get the maximum benefit from them and also improve their status of life.

Key words: Adaptation, mitigation, climate induce migrants, climate change.

Introduction

Human activities such as generating energy, industrial work that destroys forest and agricultural land resulted the climate change in changing the weather pattern (Yue and Gao 2018). According to Global Climate Risk Index (CRI), from the year 1996 to 2015, a total of 528,000 deaths has been caused in a direct consequence of 11,000 extreme climatic events (Kreft et al. 2016). The countries especially low to middle income level are facing more vulnerabilities to different natural disasters like prolonged flooding, cyclone, storm surges, seasonal drought and sea level rising (Ibarraran 2009; Nakashima et al. 2012). So they have to be migrated in severe cases. Migration has been a long-term adaptation technique for displaced people who has been forced to leave their native place due to any kind of natural calamities (McLeman and Smith 2006, Barnett and Webber 2010, Adger et al. 2003a,b; Tacoli 2011, Barnett and O’Neill 2012). Migration has been frequent in those countries who faces natural calamities very often. People of low income level migrate seasonally to support their living (Black et al. 2011; Kniveton et al. 2012). People who lose their housing due to natural disaster ended up in the low-cost housing area mostly slum in the cities thanks to the high cost of rebuilding the house. The “Bhola cyclone” which killed nearly five hundred thousand with a huge number of displaced people who relocate in Mirpur, Dhaka named their slum as “Bhola Slum” after their native place (McNamara et al. 2015). People generally migrate to those places where they have a better accessibility to jobs and social network (Black et al. 2011, 2013; Kniveton et al. 2012; Warner et al., 2013). Two different dimensions has been identified as the after effect of climate change which includes the cause dimensions and the consequence dimension. First one includes the disaster and after effect resulted by the climate change and the other one is the socio-economic hardship as well as human right violation etc. (CPRD, 2015). Due to changing climate the disaster can push people to the extent that they forced to move to urban cities like Dhaka, Chittagong Khulna etc. So they can avail an upgraded livelihood.

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