The study consisted of three types of botanical such as neem oil, mahagoni seeds and pyrethrum flower
including one chemical, namely malathion, were used against red pumpkin beetle in the period of April 2017
to October 2018 at Polder 32 in Dacope upazila of the Khulna district. The study stated that the neem oil
ensured the minimum % leaf infestation, while control treatment gave the maximum percentage in cucumber.
Among the botanical products, neem oil achieved 1.33 and 1.63 times better performance than that of
mahogoni seeds and pyrethrum flower, respectively in respect of leaf infestation. The study also examined
the fruit weight/plant ranged from 0.25-4.08 kg/plant, which was detected as significant due to the effect of
botanicals and malathion. Here Neem oil gave the best as well as the highest fruit yield with the value of
4.08 kg/plant, which was noted as the 1.15, 1.22, 1.07 and 16.50 times higher yield/plant than that of
mahogoni seeds and pyrethrum flower, malathion and the control, respectively. Although, the most
commonly used method for controlling red pumpkin beetle in Bangladesh is the use of insecticides, but only
botanical extracts ensured fully protected cucumber for human consumption, both in fresh and cooked dishes.
Key words: Botanical pesticide, malathion, red pumpkin beetle, cucumber.
Agriculture in Bangladesh has changed dramatically, especially since the end of the independent war. As a
result of these changes, farmers were able to produce the majority of crops with fewer workers in
Bangladesh. Although these changes have many positive effects and have reduced many risks in
agriculture, there have also been considerably top depletion of soil, ground and surface water pollution,
constant neglect of living and working conditions for farm work, increasing production costs and the
disintegration of economic and social conditions in rural communities (ASR, 2006). Over the past three
decades, the random use of chemical pesticides in agriculture has led to serious health and environmental
problems in many developing countries (World Resources, 1999). The World Health Organization (WHO)
and the United Nations Environment Program estimate pesticide poisoning rates of 2-3 per minute, with
around 20,000 employees dying each year from exposure, the majority in developing countries (WHO,
1990; Kishi et al., 1995; Rosenstock et al., 1991). Prolonged exposure to pesticides can lead to
cardiopulmonary disorders, neurological and hematologic disorders and skin diseases (Davies et al., 1982;
Smith et al., 1988). From an environmental point of view, chemically contaminated field drainage has
contaminated surface and groundwater, damaged fisheries, destroyed freshwater ecosystems and created
growing “dead zones” in ocean areas near the mouths of rivers that drain agricultural areas (Pimental et al.,
1992; Tardiff, 1992). Indiscriminate and excessive use of pesticides posses excessive residues on the fruits
affect consumer health and the environment, pesticide resistance, poisoning, danger to non-target
organisms (Guan-Soon, 1990). Residue problems have therefore become quite alarming, due to the
continuous and uncontrolled use of very persistent pesticides in agricultural and public health programs.
Now the sustainable agriculture movement is receiving more and more support and acceptance within
mainstream of agriculture. Not only does sustainable agriculture address many environmental and social
problems, it also offers innovative and economically viable opportunities for growers, workers, consumers,
policy makers and many others throughout the food system with regard to a sympathetic environment
(Faroque et al., 2011).