Introduction

After Iceland, Finland is the northen most country in the world, where one-third of total length lies on the north of Artic circle. The country’s northern most point is Utsjoki (70°5¢ 30² N), southern most point is Tulliniemi (58°48¢ 30² N), westernmost point is Koltapahtaniemi, Lapland (20°33¢ 27²E) and easternmost point Virmajarvi of Ilomantsi (31°35¢ 20² E). Finland’s frontier is 3,600km, land 2,571 km, 586 km land boundary with Sweden, 716 km with Norway and 1,269 km with Russia. The highest length covers 1,160 km and width 540 km, with surface area 3,37,032 sqkm, where land coverage 305,475 sqkm and water body 31,557 sqkm. The land area is formed during and after the final stage of last Ice age mostly due to movement of icesheets. Then part of the surface bed rocks turned into soils due to weathering and disintegration processes. Finland is known as low lying fairly flat country, break down of bed rocks for thousands of years with altitude 152m above sea level. Altitudes devides Finland into two-lowlands and uplands. Land is the highest point (1,328m) i.e. Haltiatunturi. One third Finland has 9.4% inland water i.e. 31.55 sqkm. There are 55-75 thousand lakes in Finland with mean depth of 7m covering 3,00,000 km lake shore. The largest lake Saima that is 35th largest in the world (4,400 sqkm) and 5th largest in Europe. Here coastline covers 20,000. There are rather few rocky islands along with west coast. Finland territorial limit runs 4 nautical miles from the coast Finland lies in the snow and forest zone characterized by cold damp winters and warm summers. The summer temp. varies from 13°-17°C with maximum of 30°C, average rainfall 700mm (southwest) and 400mm in the northwern zone (Lapland) where 30-40% rainfall comes as snow. Snow cover starts in Oct/Nov. and continues to mid-summer/April. In Lapland snow covers continues until June each year. The snow last for 70-100 days in south west Finland, 160-190 days in eastern zone and then 200-210 days in the north (Lapland). The water ways freezes in Oct-Nov. in northern side sea in December and continues until May-June (Lapland). The longest day in the south in hrs. and shortest 6 hrs. but in Lapland enjoys nightless night in summer (70°N), sun never sets for 73 days but in winter it never rises for 51 days.

In 1978 there were 4,513 thousand or 4.5 million people in Finland and in 2000 total population was 4.747 million; and recently in 2023 it was observed/estimated to 5.5 million people in Finland. There are more than 90 large to small cities in Finland. Here 14 cities with approximate thousand, population (in brackets) in 1980s are listed here: (1) Helsinki (488), (2) Tampere (166), (3) Turku (165), (4) Espoo (126), (5) Vantaa (125), (6) Lahti (95), (7) Oulu (93), (8) Pori (80), (9) Kuopio (73), (10) Jyvaskyla (63), (11) Kotka (62), (12) Vaasa (54), (13) Lapperanta (54), (14) Joensuu (44). Through 9 years living and mixing with Finnish people of various categories, the following identical factors-love of Finnish people have been established.

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